Sarf – Level 2 – Class 3

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

إن الحمد لله نحمده ، و نستعينه ، ونستغفره ، ونعوذ بالله من شرور أنفسنا ، ومن سيئات أعمالنا .
من يهده الله فلا مضل له ، ومن يضلل فلا هادي له ، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له .وأ شهد أ ن محمداً عبدُه و رسولُه صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وأصحابه ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين وسلم تسليم كثيراً أما بعد

Review >>>

In the previous class we talked about the meaning of this form:

أَفعَلَ – يُفعلُ – إفعَالاً

It is called: بَابُ الإفعَل (Baabul –If`aal).

It is called by this name because thee scholars have agreed (technically) upon naming the chapter after its masdar – the chapter has the name of its masdar – the masdar here is إفعَالاً (If`aalaa) so you can call this chapter: بَابُ الإفعَل (Baabul-If`aal) because this masdar is for this chapter specifically – it is not shared with any other chapter.

* As a student of knowledge, you have to be very specific and clear when answering the teacher’s questions*

The meanings which are commonly used for this chapter are seven (7).

The first one is: التعدية (At-Ta`diyyah) which means “crossing.” Some of the scholars gave a definition that is very easy to work with. Al-Hamlaawiyy for example in his simplified book of sarf said that At-Ta`diyyah is that you turn the doer into a receiver by the hamzah. (The hamzah that you add). This hamzah that you add to the three letter verb making it a four letter verb turns the doer into the receiver (the receiver of the action).
So التعدية (At-Ta`diyyah ) is turning the doer into a receiver by the hamzah and in this case the verb will contain the meaning of “making” as expressed by the word تَصْيِير (tasyeer ) or جَعَلَ(ja`ala).

Some Examples >>>

We will take some verbs which are considered  لَازم (laazim):

1.   خَرَجَ زَيْدٌ (kharaja zaydun) –  Zayd went out. *Kharaja is from 1st Chapter – Kharaja/Yakhruju
2.  جَلَسَ عَمْرٌ (jalasa `amrun) – `Amr sat up. *Jalasa is from 2nd chapter – Jalasa/Yajlisu  (“jalasa” is for “sit up” and “Qa`ada” is for “sat down.”)
3. ضَحِكَ مُحَمَّدٌ (dhahika Muhammadun)  – Muhammad laughed. *Dhahika is from 4th chapter – Dhahika/yadhhaku

Now to make Zayd a receiver instead of the doer of this exiting, and make `Amr a receiver of this sitting and make Muhammad a receiver of this laughing, add a hamzah to the beginning of the verb (and silence the faa’ul-kalimah):

1. أَخْرَجَ زَيْدٌ (Akhraja Zaydun)
2. أَجْلَسَ عَمْرٌ (Ajlasa `Amrun)
3. أَضْحَكَ مُحَمَّدٌ (Adhhaka Muhammadun)  (Remember that the `aynul-kalimah are fixed in this chapter: The Maadhee is fixed on fathah and the Mudhaari` is fixed on kasrah.)

Then add the تاء الفاعل  taa’ul-faa`il (taa of the doer) to the end of the verb – (give it a dhammah and silence the laamul-kalimah):

1. أَخْرَجْتُ زَيْدٌ (Akhrajtu Zaydun)
2. أَجْلَسْتُ عَمْرٌ (Ajlastu `amrun)
3. أَضْحَكْتُ مُحَمَّدٌ(Adh-haktu Muhammadun)

The doer gets a dhammah and the receiver gets a fathah so Zaydun becomes Zaydan, `Amrun becomes `Amran, and Muhammadun becomes Muhammadan:

1.  أَخْرَجْتُ زَيْداً  (Akhrajtu Zaydan)
2.  أَجْلَسْتُ عَمْراً (Ajlastu `amran)
3. أَضْحَكْتُ مُحَمَّداً (Adh-haktu Muhammadan)

Now the verbs have the meaning of making:

1. أَخْرَجْتُ زَيْداً (Akhrajtu Zaydan) – I made Zayd go out.
2. أَجْلَسْتُ عَمْراً (Ajlastu `amran) – I made `Amr sit up.
3. أَضْحَكْتُ مُحَمَّداً (Adh-haktu Muhammadan) – I made Muhammad laugh.

We bring the above sentences in the Mudhaari` form and the masdar – basically following the scale  (أَفعَلَ – يُفعلُ – إفعَالاً) (Not in the third person where we use the yaa’ in the mudhaari`, but in the first person with the hamzah for the mudhaari`), we have:

 أَخْرَجْتُ زَيْداً – أُخْرِجُهُ – إِخْرَاجاً (Akhrajtu Zaydan) – I made Zayd go out. (Ukhrijuhu) I make him go out – (ikhraajaa) –  A making to go out. (the act of making to go out).

  • أَخْرَجْتُ  (Akhrajtu) is the maadhee
  • أُخْرِجُ (Ukhriju) is the mudhaari`  (we say أًخْرِجُهُ (Ukhrijuhu) using the ضَمِير (dhameer) because it is shameful in the Arabic language to use the name again – just as long as you can be brief it is shameful not to be brief.   T the same time, not mentioning the name again and sufficing with using the dhameer is when there is no benefit in mentioning the name again.  Sometimes there is a benefit to doing so – for example:

الحاقّة * ما الحاقّة* وَ ما أَدْرَاكَ ما الحَاقّة (Suurah 69)

and القارعة * ما القارعة (Suurah 101)

This reason is something mentioned in Balaaghah

  • إِخْرِاجاً (Ikhraajaa) is the masdar –  it is given a fathah for reason that we will learn in grammar Inshaa’Allaah.  As a principle followed we will always give the masdar a fathah.  Do not mention the noon of the tanween when stopping on the word.

أَجْلَسْتُ عَمْراً – أُجْلِسُهُ – إِجْلاساً (Ajlastu `Amran) – I made `Amr sit up. (Ujlisuhu) – I make `Amr sit up. (Ijlaasaa) – A making to sit up.

So we start with the maadhee (1), then we bring the mudhaar`i (2),  and after that the masdar (3):

أَضْحَكْتُ مُحَمَّداً –  أُضْحِكُهُ – إِضْحَاكاً (Adh-haktu Muhammadan) – I made Muhammad laugh. (Udh-hikuhu) – I make Muhammad laugh. (Idhaakaa) – A making to laugh.

Practice Drills for the Formations >>>

After this our teacher drilled students by providing a 4 letter maadh from this scale and we completed the formation in the scale.  Meanings were not given this time as it was just for practicing the formations.

S2_3.3

Examples of these verbs are found in Suurah Al- Baqarah. (few examples are below).  Teacher advised us to target the verbs as we read the Qur’aan.

بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ – 2:90

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ – 2:3

كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُمْ مَشَوْا فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا –  2:20

وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنْجَيْنَاكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ – 2:50

From the Questions >>>

  • Not all 3 letter laazim verbs can be brought on this chapter or given this meaning ( at-ta`diyyah).
  • The masdar of Ashraka is Ishraak and of Athlama is Ithlaam.
  • Every verb which has a hamzah in the beginning as an extra letter is from this chapter –  this is qiyaas and it is no doubt  but the meaning is what is samaa’ since there are different meanings for this chapter and so from this sequence of the sentence you know the meaning.
  • The scholars have studied and came to conclusions and technical justifications to how words were used and are used now to analyze the origin of words.  Some of those justifications it is not certain but it is based upon anology and the analogy is based upon evidence. Sometimes there could be differences in the analogy (this is rare.)
  • Ikhraajaa and khuruuj – Khurooj could be by itself and it could be by a doer And Ikhraajaa is only by someone –  this is the difference in meanings.  The basic principle is that the increase in the buiding of the word is an increase in the meaning –  so there are different meanings.
  • Any masdar given in level one is to the three letter verbs.
  • Difference between Shirk and Ishraak?    Sometimes the word  Af`ala might not have (and this is rare) a different meaning than fa`ala without any additions.

Transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

Screen Shots >>>

S2_3.1S2_3.2S2_3.3

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