Sarf – Level Two – Class 11

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدينأ, أما بعد

~~~~~

Topic of the Lesson:  Sixth meaning of this chapter أفعل – يُفعِل – إفعالا and it is: الْإِغْنَاءُ عَنِ الْمُجَرَّد

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This sixth meaning is more of a usage – a usage of this form -  it is الْإِغْنَاءُ عَنِ الْمُجَرَّد  – al-ighnaa’ literally means, “sufficing” and al-mujarrad is the verb that is free from any extra letters.  It is to suffice us from the verb without any extra letters.  This means that there are some verbs of this chapter which don’t have a three letter verb of its meaning.

THE EXAMPLE

this does not mean that all of the letters are original -  the hamzah is still an extra letter.  For example the verb  أَقْسَمَ

It means (swore) – the hamzah here is an extra letter although the 3 letter verb sharing the same root letters does not have the same meaning that it has.  أَقْسَمَ  does not have the same meaning as  قَسَمَ

Basically – Some verbs are upon this scale (Af`ala) without having an origin from the 3 letter verb. For eexample: If we said أخرج – does it have a source with its same meaning from the three letter verb? We say yes – it has خَرَجَ which has the meaning of “exiting” and when we added this hamzah we only increased this meaning over the meaning it already had.

Akhraja is kharaja with an addition but it is not the same case with Aqsama… Aqsama is not Qasama with an addition with the same meaning.  This is an exception to the basic principle ( Adding a letter to the scale means an increase in the meaning.) -  Aqsama does not have a meaning from qasama which it goes back to -  rather aqsama is the start.  This meaning starts with four letters, it does not have a meaning in a three letter verb that it goes back to.  This is what they mean by saying, “sufficing from Al mujarrad”  This verb sufficed us from a three letter verb which has this meaning.

A Question may Arise

Does this mean that the hamzah is original?  we say, no.  But how is the hamzah not original here when Aqsama does not have a three letter vereb origin?  So how can this not be original.  We say:  Based upon the least amount of letters that a word can be upon -  this hamzah is extra letter.  Example:

Qasama is mujarrad -  Aqsama is Mazeed   – and -    Kharaja is mujaarad  – Akhraja is Mazeed

Akhraja is the mazeed of the mujarrad (kharaja)  but Aqsama is not the mazeed of the mujarrad (qasama).  Aqsama is an independent mazeed which does not have a mujarrad of its meaning -  it does not exist – it is out of usage -  there is no such thing as a mujarrad of it which shares its original meaning.

There are four letter verbs that are mujarrad with a hamzah at the beginning – in that case the hamzah is the faa’ul-kalimah.  Sometimes there are verbs on the scale of Af`ala that do not have a three letter verb from which it is derived.    Aqsama is not taken from Qasama because aqsama means “swore” and Qasam means “divided” so there is no relationship between them whatsoever.  Any verb on scale of Af’`ala is mazeed -  the hamzah is the extra letter – but some verbs were heard from the Arabs on the scale of Af’ala without taking a three letter verb from its meaning.

“dividing” is not the original meaning from which “swore” came from. -  Aqsama has its own meaning.

S2 11.1

Other verbs with this usage

أَلْفَى it means “found” but there is no verb “lafaa” from which it originates.  It;s meaning starts with “alfaa”

أَفَاضَ  it means “approached”in the sense of spreading out- something was let loose and spread out, it is approaching in that manner –  as in: فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّـهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّالِّينَ – 2:198  Here it was followed by “min” and that is why it was given the meaning of “left”   Is Afadhaa from faadhaa?  No because fadhaa means exceeded the limit or flowing over and it has nothing to do with “approached.”

أفْلح means “succeeded” but “falaha” means something else (farmed, tilled,

أناب means, “repented or returned”  but naaba means “became a substitute”.

أقلّ means “carried” but if you rid the word from the extra letter you would have Qalla which means ” lessened”  As in: 7:57  حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالًا سُقْنَاهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَأَنزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاءَ فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ

Aqalla has its own meaning- independent of the meaning of the three lettter verb, Qalla.  Here Aqalla sufficed iteself from having a three letter verb originally.  This is why it is called “al-Ighnaa’” It is sufficiently proving its own meaning without having a three letter verb to rely on.

أذنب means, “sinned” but there is no verb Dhanaba – and if there ws it wouldnt give the same meaning because this meaning starts here with Adhnaba.

This is the last meaning we will take for this chapter - which is a usage more than a meaning -  otherwise, it reaches up to more than 20 meanings.  -  But these six meanings are enough for us in the beginning.

Practice Drills -Verbs from the Glorious Qur’aan >>>

The remainder of the class our teacher gave us clear examples of these meanings in the Qur’aan with some brilliant points of benefit realted to balaaghah and these will be added and updated قريبا Inshaa’Allaah…

- End of Dars -

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

SCREEN SHOTS >>>

S2 11.2

S2 11.3

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