بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Revision Class For Level Three Students 1
( Sunday April 17th)
After praising Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’Aalaa, the Lord of all that exists, and sending the salaat and salaam on our Prophet-Muhammad (salallaahu`alayhi wa sallam), his family and companions and those who follow them in righteousness until the Last Day, our teacher began:
Fiqh parts into two:
- Fardhul-`Ayn is that which is obligatory on every individual
- Fardhul-Kifayah is that which is obligatory on a certain group of people
Learning the Arabic language falls under the second category. On top of it being one of the compulsory types of knowledge to seek – on those who seek it, it is considered the condition to understanding the Qur’aan and Sunnah and how they should be understood.
The Imaam As-Suyuti said: “And the Scholars have unanimously agreed that grammar is needed in every kind of science (Islaamic sciences) never the less the interpretation of the Qur’aan and Hadeeth, for it is not permissible for anyone to talk in the matter of the Book of Allaah until his full of Arabic, because the Qur’aan is Arabic, and its meanings are not understood without the Arabic principles, and so the hadeeth.”
In a previous introduction we had talked about Ikhlaas and Tawakkul before. In every science, if there is no Ikhlaas then there is no point in learning that science because learning is only made as a way to practicing.
If someone asks: What is the ruling of what we learn here? And the second question should be: Why are we learning and what do we want to get to?
We can say that any type of knowledge that we seek – and by knowledge we mean the knowledge that is accounted as knowledge of Shari`ah and the knowledge that will aid in understanding the Shari`ah and the Kitaab and Sunnah, this type of knowledge is only made as a tool and the way to reach practicing – practicing which is considered the correct practicing of this Deen.
Why do we practice this Deen? For what purpose do we pray? Fast? Give out charity? Perform Hajj? We do it seeking Allaah’s Face and entering His Paradise. This is the reason –the aim – the goal… it should be our purpose in everything we do- especially seeking knowledge. Seeking knowledge is the best type of `Ibaadah because it leads you to practicing.
What is the difference between Lughah and Istilaah?
Lughah (لغة) It is the linguistic Arabic usage of a word. And Istilaah (اصطلاح) is the agreement of a certain group of scholars on giving something a name after moving it from its original usage. It is the exclusive usage amongst the scholars of a particular science used to specifically refer to the understanding of the rulings of the outer actions of an individual.
What is the definition of Sarf?
Sarf (الصرف) is the study of words in their specific forms before being put into a sentence. Its lughah meaning is: “changing” or “Turning into or towards”. The istilaah meaning of Sarf is: ”changing the source to different forms in order to express different meanings that aren’t expressed except through those forms.“
What is the Masdar?
Source or Masdar (مصدر) (pl. Masaadir مصادر) – Its lughah meaning is: “the source”. Its istilaah meaning is: “the name of the act one does”. It does not have a tense (time constriction). This Masdar is brought into different forms in order to express different meanings.
Why do we want to express different meanings?
To communicate with others – this communication will not happen in a correct manner unless each meaning is used with its correct form. Otherwise there would be a lot of misunderstanding.
What is a form?
Form or Binaa’ (بِنَاء) (pl. Abniyah أَبْنِيَة) – Its lughah meaning is “putting something to something else so that it stays (building).” Its istilaah meaning refers to what makes up a word i.e. the number of letters and their order, the harakaat and sakanaat, and the original and extra letters all in its position.
What is the scale and why do we need it?
We use the scale to weigh the words in order to differentiate between the original and extra letters and to know the place of each letter.
Why was the scale made for three letters only?
Because the least amount of letters you can find a word on – whether verbs or nouns – is three. Most of the words come on three letters.
Why did they use the faa’ the `Ayn and the laam?
Because this verb ( fa`ala – he did) can be used to express any verb. It can take the place of any verb/action.
What is a Wazn and what is a Mawzoon?
The wazn is the scale and the mawzoon is the word weighed (in the scale). If the mawzoon is 3 letters and the wazn is 3 letters then the letters of the mawzoon are brought down exactly into the scale and fit the wazn. The first letter is called “faa’ul-kalimah” the second letter is the “`Aynul-kalimah” and the third letter is the “laamul-kalimah”.
What do we call an extra letter and what do if we had more than 3 letters in a word weighed?
The extra letter is called “mazeed”(mazeedun fihi –it is “ziyaadah” an increase) When we have this increase –we must first determine what type of extra it is. CASES:
- If this extra letter is due to repeating a letter, we bring the extra letter into the scale
- If this extra letter is an extra letter that is an original letter, then we add a laam in the scale
- How can a letter be called “extra” and “original “at the same time? *It is original in the word weighed but extra in the scale*
When we bring the words on the scale, we are just weighing them so we can know how many letters there are, the extra letters from the original letters, where each letter was originally, was it moved etc…
Inkasara is on the scale of…?
- it is on the scaleof “infa`ala”
- it means: “got broken”
- it is laazim
- it is on the chapter of infi`aal (when we want to name a chapter, we name it by its masdar)
- it is mutaawi` (the thing that accepts the effect)
- it is from the verb kasara
Give an example of a muta`adee from this chapter.
There is no example of a muta`adee from this chapter (infa`ala) because this scale is used to show the acceptance of an action or an effect. It expresses something accepting an effect within itself – it is only Laazim.
Is it correct to say “qaala” is on the scale of “fa’ala”?
Yes it is because Qaala was originally QAWALA (the waaw was changed to an alif due to a principle) and we weigh the words before the change had occurred.
What do we say to one that asks: “is the alif an extra or an original?”
We say it is an original because it is representing an original letter. (it represents the Waaw)
“Qul” is on the scale of…?
It is on the scale of “ful” – we drop the letter on the wazn (the aynul-kalimah).
“Takallama” is on the scale of…?
It is on the scale of “tafa“ala”
“Qatt`a” is on the scale of…?
It is on the scaleof “ fa“ala”
Qatt’a means “to cut to pieces” (cut up many times). It is different than “Qat’a” which means “cut once”.
This is an example of multiplication- taktheer.
How do we form chapters?
We bring the Maadhee with its mudhaari`.
How many forms do we have for the Maadhee?
Logically we have 12 but 8 of them were dropped due to the principle that “Originally there is no starting with a dhammah or kasrah” (verbs that start with a dhammah or kasrah are changed that way for a certain case – to bring them in the passive form). One more was dropped because if the `Aynul-kaalimah has a sukoon that would result in two sukoons meeting each other when the attached form of the fa’il (doer) is added to the verb and if we gave the first sukoon a harakah we would end up back with one of the other three forms.
What is the way out when we are faced with two sukoons?
We give the first sukoon a kasrah, or if that doesn’t work we give it a dhammah, if that doesn’t work we give it a fathah, if none of these work we drop a letter. We couldn’t drop a letter from the maadhee mentioned above because it would not make sense.
What are the steps to produce the mudhaari` from the maadhee?
Silence the first letter of the Maadhee and add one of the “ANAYTU” letters to the beginning… and we will continue with this revision in the next class mentioning details of Mudhaari` and Amr in shaa’Allaah.