Revision Class For Level Three Students 2
(Tuesday April 19th)
After praising Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’Aalaa, the Lord of all that exists, and sending the salaat and salaam on our Prophet-Muhammad (salallaahu`alayhi wa sallam), his family and companions and those who follow them in righteousness.
Revision Part Two
Today we are speaking about the verbs and how they are used – their meanings and certain questions regarding how those verbs change.
In order to change the Maadhee (الماضي) into the Mudhaari`(المضارع), we add one of the letters from “ANAYTU.” to the beginning. Each of these letters represents a meaning:
- Ansuru- the hamzah represents “al-Mutakkallim” (I)
- Nansuru –the Noon represents “al-Mutakkallim” (We), or the royal We.- the one speaking glorifying himself.
- Yansuru – the yaa’ represents “al-Ghaa’ib male” (He)
- Tansuru – the taa’ represents al-Ghaa’ib female and al-Mukhaatab female (She, You F) and Al-Mukhaatab male (You M)
What is the third chapter (albaabuth-thaalith)?
- It is Fa`ala – Yaf`alu
What is its condition?
- That the ‘aynul-kalimah or laamul-kalimah is a letter of the throat (but the opposite is not true – meaning if we find a verb that has an `aynul-kalimah or laamul-kalimah as a throat letter that doesn’t necessarily mean it is of this chapter.
What is the first Chapter when there is a ziyadah (four letter verbs which are three letter verbs with one added)?
- It is: Baabul If`aal – Af`ala/yu`filu/If`aalaa
What is the common example?
- The common example which is muta`addee is: Akrama/yukrimu/Ikraamaa
How should Akrama/yukrimu be said in the first place?
- The madhee remains as it is and the mudhaaree` was originally ‘u’akrimu which brought two hamzahs in a row and heavy on the tongue so they dropped the second hamzah in all of the forms (Anaytu) for unity so instead of ‘u’akrimu, nu’akrimu, tu’akrimu, yu’akrimu –they have ‘ukrimu, nukrimu, tukrimu, yukrimu.
What are the meanings of this chapter?
- The first meaning is Att`adiyah
What does “at-Ta`diyah mean?
- Making a laazim into a muta`addee Some examples:
- Jalasa/ Ajlasa
- Dhahaba /Adh-haba as in 33/33:
- وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا
What are other meanings for Af`ala?
- Another meaning is musaadafah – coincidentally finding something or someone in a certain way.
- Akbarnahu – They found him big in beauty as in Soorah Yusuf 12/31:
فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتْ بِمَكْرِهِنَّ أَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِنَّ وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً وَآتَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِّنْهُنَّ سِكِّينًا وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ عَلَيْهِنَّ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلّهِ مَا هَـذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَـذَا إِلاَّ مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ
Another meaning is entering into a place or time (ad-dukhuulu fee shay’in zamanan aw makaanan)
- Sometimes it has no difference than fa`ala (its original three letter verb)
What is the second chapter of the four letter verbs?
- The second chapter is baabut-taf`eel ~ fa“ala- yufa“ilu-taf`eelaa
What is the meaning of this chapter?
- At-Taktheer (multiplication) -it is a sort of Ziyaadah ziyaadah is more general
- There are three types of At-Taktheer
- In the doer
- In the action
- In the receiver
What is an example from the Qur’aan?
- Yusuf 12/ 23
- وَرَاوَدَتْهُ الَّتِي هُوَ فِي بَيْتِهَا عَن نَّفْسِهِ وَغَلَّقَتِ الأَبْوَابَ وَقَالَتْ هَيْتَ لَكَ قَالَ مَعَاذَ اللّهِ إِنَّهُ رَبِّي أَحْسَنَ مَثْوَايَ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ
- This is an example of at-Taktheer in the receiver.
What indicates that it is in the receiver?
- The plurality of the receiver
How do we form an Amr?
- Drop the letter of the mudhaari` – we are left with a saakin letter at the beginning of the word. We cannot start with sukoon so we:
- Add Hamzatul-Wasl. We read the hamzatul-wasl with a kasrah if the third letter has kasrah or fat-hah, we read it with dhammah if it has dhammah.
- If the verb is Saheeh give the end a sukoon
What are some examples of forming the Amr?
- Nasara/Yansuru –Unsur
- Rakiba/yarkabu – Irkab
- Shariba/yashrabu /ishrab
Why is Akrim different?
- The original hamzah in the madhee returns (no need for us to drop it any more) It was originally yu`akrimu the only reason it was dropped was when having two hamzahs in a row for ‘u’akrimu.
What are the two general types of verbs?
- Saheeh and Mu`tal
How do we define the Saheeh?
- Saheeh verbs are free from Harf Illah (they do not contain Alif waaw Saakinah or yaa saakinah) but they can be mahmuz and mudha`af
What is the difference between As-Saheeh and As-Saalim?
- Every Saalim is Saheeh but not vice versa
- As-Saalim is the one that does not have huruuf illah, or hamzah or muda`af
- Akhadha is saheeh but not saalim
- Karuma is both
- Madda is saheeh but not saalim
How many options do we have when we want to order for Madda / yamuddu
- We have 2 options – Umdud or Mudda
We can do the idghaam or open it
We have three ways we can say “Mudda” (the point 1 concerning the fathah needs clarification in shaa Allaah)
- First is with a fathah – mudda because the verbs do not usually take a fathah
- After fathah we can give a kasrah because originally the kasrah is what to use when getting rid of two saakins in a row
- Then comes a dhammah but dhammah when the first identical letter has a dhammah