Revision Class for Level Three Students 2

Revision Class For Level Three Students 2
(Tuesday April 19th)

After praising Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’Aalaa, the Lord of all that exists, and sending the salaat and salaam on our Prophet-Muhammad (salallaahu`alayhi wa sallam), his family and companions and those who follow them in righteousness.

Revision Part Two

Today we are speaking about the verbs and how they are used – their meanings and certain questions regarding how those verbs change.

In order to change the Maadhee  (الماضي) into the Mudhaari`(المضارع), we add one of the letters from “ANAYTU.”  to the beginning.  Each of these letters represents a meaning:

  1. Ansuru- the hamzah represents “al-Mutakkallim”  (I)
  2. Nansuru –the Noon represents “al-Mutakkallim” (We), or the royal We.- the one speaking glorifying himself.
  3. Yansuru –  the yaa’  represents “al-Ghaa’ib male” (He)
  4. Tansuru – the taa’ represents al-Ghaa’ib female and al-Mukhaatab female (She, You F) and Al-Mukhaatab male (You M)

LEVEL ONE

What is the third chapter (albaabuth-thaalith)?

  • It is Fa`ala – Yaf`alu

What is its condition?

  • That the ‘aynul-kalimah or laamul-kalimah is a letter of the throat (but the opposite is not true – meaning if we find a verb that has an `aynul-kalimah or laamul-kalimah as a throat letter that doesn’t necessarily mean it is of this chapter.

LEVEL TWO

What is the first Chapter when there is a ziyadah (four letter verbs which are three letter verbs with one added)?

  • It is: Baabul If`aal  – Af`ala/yu`filu/If`aalaa

What is the common example?

  • The common example which is muta`addee is:  Akrama/yukrimu/Ikraamaa

How should Akrama/yukrimu be said in the first place?

  • The madhee remains as it is and the mudhaaree` was originally  ‘u’akrimu which brought two hamzahs in a row and heavy on the tongue so they dropped the second hamzah in all of the forms (Anaytu) for unity  so instead of ‘u’akrimu, nu’akrimu, tu’akrimu, yu’akrimu –they have ‘ukrimu, nukrimu, tukrimu, yukrimu.

What are the meanings of this chapter?

  • The first meaning is Att`adiyah

What does “at-Ta`diyah mean?

  • Making a laazim into  a muta`addee Some examples:
  1. Jalasa/ Ajlasa
  2. Kharaja/Akhraja
  3. Dhahaba /Adh-haba as in 33/33:
    • وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا
  4.  Nazala/Anzala
  5. Maata/Amaata
  6. Bakaa/Abka
  7. Qa`ada/Aq`ada
  8. Dhahika/Adh-haka
  9. Waritha/Awratha
  10. Dakhala/Adkhala

What are other meanings for Af`ala?

  • Another meaning is musaadafah – coincidentally finding something or someone in a certain way.
    • Akbarnahu – They found him big in beauty as in Soorah Yusuf 12/31:
      • فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتْ بِمَكْرِهِنَّ أَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِنَّ وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً وَآتَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِّنْهُنَّ سِكِّينًا وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ عَلَيْهِنَّ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلّهِ مَا هَـذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَـذَا إِلاَّ مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ

Another meaning is entering into a place or time (ad-dukhuulu fee shay’in zamanan aw makaanan)

      • Amsara
      • Asbaha
      • Anjada
      • Afjara
      • Amsaa
      • A`araqa
      • At-hama
    • Sometimes it has no difference than  fa`ala (its original three letter verb)
      • Saqaa/Asqaa
      • Dhalama/Adhlama

What is the second chapter of the four letter verbs?

  • The second chapter is baabut-taf`eel ~ fa“ala- yufa“ilu-taf`eelaa

What is the meaning of this chapter?

  • At-Taktheer (multiplication)  -it is a sort of Ziyaadah  ziyaadah is more general
  • There are three types of At-Taktheer
  1. In the doer
  2. In the action
  3. In the receiver

What is an example from the Qur’aan?

  • Yusuf 12/ 23
    • وَرَاوَدَتْهُ الَّتِي هُوَ فِي بَيْتِهَا عَن نَّفْسِهِ وَغَلَّقَتِ الأَبْوَابَ وَقَالَتْ هَيْتَ لَكَ قَالَ مَعَاذَ اللّهِ إِنَّهُ رَبِّي أَحْسَنَ مَثْوَايَ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ
    • This is an example of at-Taktheer in the receiver.

What indicates that it is in the receiver? 

  • The plurality of the receiver

How do we form an Amr?

  1. Drop the letter of the mudhaari`  – we are left with a saakin letter at the beginning of the word. We cannot start with sukoon so we:
  2. Add Hamzatul-Wasl.  We read the hamzatul-wasl with a kasrah if the third letter has kasrah or fat-hah, we read it with dhammah if it has dhammah.
  3. If the verb is Saheeh give the end a sukoon

What are some examples of forming the Amr?

  • Nasara/Yansuru –Unsur
  • Rakiba/yarkabu – Irkab
  • Jalasa/yajlisu/Ijlis
  • Shariba/yashrabu /ishrab
  • Akrama/yukrimu/akrim 

Why is Akrim different?

  • The original hamzah in the madhee returns (no need for us to drop it any more)  It was originally yu`akrimu the only reason it was dropped was when having two hamzahs in a row for ‘u’akrimu.

What are the two general types of verbs?

  • Saheeh and Mu`tal

How do we define the Saheeh?

  • Saheeh verbs are free from Harf Illah (they do not contain Alif waaw Saakinah or yaa saakinah) but they can be mahmuz and mudha`af

What is the difference between As-Saheeh and As-Saalim?

  • Every Saalim is Saheeh but not vice versa
  • As-Saalim is the one that does not have huruuf illah, or hamzah or muda`af
  • Akhadha is saheeh but not saalim
  • Karuma is  both
  • Madda is saheeh but not saalim

How many options do we have when we want to order for Madda / yamuddu

  • We have 2 options – Umdud or Mudda

We can do the idghaam or open it

We have three ways we can say “Mudda”  (the point 1 concerning the fathah needs clarification in shaa Allaah)

  1. First is  with a fathah – mudda  because the verbs do not usually take a fathah
  2. After fathah we can give a kasrah because originally the kasrah is what to use when getting rid of  two saakins in a row
  3.  Then comes a dhammah but dhammah when the first identical letter has a dhammah

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4 thoughts on “Revision Class for Level Three Students 2

  1. Ummu Sakeenah October 23, 2011 at 9:31 pm Reply

    Assalaamu ‘Alaikunna.
    How do we form Al-Amr from the verb “if’alla” (if’alla, yaf’allu, if’ilaalan)? If we drop the harful-mudaari’, add hamzatul-wasl and silence the last letter, there’ll be 2 sukoons in a row, then we can only add a fathah (for the idghaam to take place), and so the amr will turn out to be exactly like its maadee form, i.e. “if’alla”. So how does this work?
    Jazaakunnallaahu Khairaa.

    • sarf4sisters October 25, 2011 at 6:56 pm Reply

      walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh
      It appears that this is the case Sister. The imperative form is the same as the past tense form. Perhaps we come to know which form by the context, Wallaahu `alaam. If one of the other admins or the teacher has some more input, we will post it here. I’ve seen that the imperative of this particular form (if`alla) is also ifalil. So it is ifalil/if`alla…but we can ask the teacher for clarification inshaa’Allaah when new classes start. Barakallaahu feeki
      umm omar

  2. Ummu Sakeenah October 25, 2011 at 3:56 pm Reply

    Also, in Sarf Level 1, we were told that the chapter “fa’ala, yaf’ulu” is qiyaasee if: (1) the ‘ainul-kalimah is a “waw”, and (2) the laamul-kalimah is a “waw”. These are the two ways of knowing the first chapter, and everything else is Samaa’ee.
    However, in Sarf Level 2, we studied that there’s a 3rd qiyaasee case to know “fa’ala, yaf’ulu”, and that’s when the muda”af is muta’addee. So isn’t this a contradiction to what we studied in Level 1, or which of the two is correct? Meaning, how many qiyaasee cases are there to know “fa’ala, yaf’ulu”?
    And is there a 4th qiyaasee case as well?

    • sarf4sisters October 25, 2011 at 7:08 pm Reply

      As salaamu alaykum Sister,
      Jazaakillaahu khayran for this question – In shaa’ Allaah we can ask the teacher for clarification. Perhaps it is 3 cases and there is not contradiction but rather different levels of information for each course. Sarf level one we learned 2 cases of qiyaasee and the rest of examples we learned were samaa’ee, and then when we were ready for more information (level2), teacher brought us another example of qiyaasee – wallaahu`alaam.
      Umm Omar

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