Our teacher began with praising Allaah Subhaanahu wa ta’Aalaa and sending salaat and salaams on the Rasoolullaah, his family, companions and righteous followers to the Last Day.
Today we begin the first class of Sarf Level 3 – In this level we will be dealing with nouns.
الكلمة تنقسم إلى ثلاثة: اسم وفعل وحرف
Harful-Jarr is just one type of the huroof. There are many types of huroof. (jarr, jazm, nasb, raf`) and here we mean those that do all of these things.
Maa huwalismu? What is the Ism?
الاسم: كلمة تدل على معنى في نفسها ولم تقترن بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة
Al-Ismu: kalimatun tadullu `alaa ma`naa fee nafsihaa wa lam taqtarin biahadil-azminatith-thalathah
The Ism is a word giving a meaning by itself without that meaning being linked to one of the three times.
When we say “by itself” what do we mean? We mean that it does not need the aid of another word to point out the meaning – because there are other words that don’t give meanings by themselves, they require another word in order for the meaning to be clear.
These are two kinds of words:
- those that give meaning by themselves (they do not need the aid of another word for pointing out a meaning or for that meaning to be clear)
- those that need another word in order for the meaning to be clear. They need another word to clarify its meaning.
الاسم The ism gives us one benefit: المعنى “al-ma`naa” a meaning ( it does this by itself – it doesn’t need another word to clarify)
الفعل The f`il gives us 2 benefits: المعنى والزمن المعين الذي وقع ذلك المعنى فيه “al-ma`naa wal-zaman al-mu`ayyan alladhee waqa` dhalik alma`naa feeh A meaning and the specific time in which that meaning took place.
The difference between the two? The Ism does not indicate a specific time along with it indicating a meaning.
The point of agreement? They both indicate a meaning. – The f`il gives something extra (the meaning that the word indicated happened and occurred in a certain time.)
In Arabic that certain time is one of three:
- الماضي Al-Maadhee (past)
- الحال Al-Hal (present)
- المستقبل Al-Mustaqbal (future)
*These are three tenses/time frames- not verbs (i.e. maadhee mudhaar` amr)
- الشمس Ash-Shams is an Ism because it gives only a meaning
- القمر Al-Qamar is an Ism – gives a meaning
- زيد Zayd – Ism
- غروب Ghurub – Ism – it means “sunset” so although it is a particular time it can occur at anytime
- الآن Alaan- Ism – it means “now” it indicates “the present time” but does not indicate a certain time frame- “now” could happen at anytime. Alaan is the name of the present time itself.
If we say يجلس “yajlisu” (he sits) it is a f`il because it gives two meanings – it gives the meaning of the action which is “sitting” and the meaning of that action taking place “now” in the present time.