Kitaab At-Taariqiyyah Class 4
Alhamdu lillaahi Rabbil `Alameen wa salal laahu wa sallama alaa nabiyyina Muhammad wa alaa ashaabi wa man tabi ahum bi ihsaanin ilaa yawmid deen amma ba’d:
In the previous class the teacher explained what I`raab is and asked students to bring their personal definitions of I`raab. This class began with students posting their answers and teacher was very pleased and impressed with their excellent answers and feedback, maashaa’Allaah.
Ustaadh’s written definition of I`raab:
I`raab is the changing of the end of the word which is brought about by the different factors) preceding/governing /affecting it.
NOTE: factors come before the word as an original principle.
There are different factors which enter in a sentence and bring about changes in a word, changes in harakaat etc. They cause the end of the word to take a certain state. These factors originally precede the word. They can be in the form of words / visible or mental. These factors govern, control, affect the word. Look at the following sentence for example:
ما أحسن زيد Maa ahsana zaidun Zaid has not done well.
Q: What is the factor that forced the end of Zaid to take a dhammah ?
A: Ahsana أحسنis the factor which caused the end of Zaid to take a dhammah. Since ahsana أحسنcame before it, it brought about the Dhammah on Zaid. If Ahsana wasn’t there it would not have taken a dhammah.
In An-Nahw , the factor is termed `aamil (عامل)and its plural is `awaamil (عوامل).
Aamil عاملliterally means: something which works something else. It forces the word after it to take a certain state.
In the sentence above, ahsana forced zaid to take the dhammah hence ahsana will be referred to as the `aamil عامل
REMEMBER: The harakah on the end of the word is determined by the` AAMIL عامل which precedes it.
Zaid did not have a harakah when it was not in a sentence, but when it came in a sentence it was affected by something hence causing its end to adopt harakah. e.g Maa ahsana zaidun ما أحسن زيد
*** AS we move along, teacher will tell us the different `awaamil in shaa’Allaah. He will give us each sign for each kind of changing***
So now we have an idea of the definition of I`raab and that which causes the I`raab.
This changing of I’raab are of 4 types:
1) Raf’ (رفع)
We must know these four types Inshaa Allaah as they are the only types of changing.
In the example Maa ahsana zaidun ما أحسن زيد , ahsana changed Zaid – the changing which occurred here is a change of Raf’
One might ask: “how do we know?” It is because the original sign of this kind of changing (Raf`) is the dhammah. Every type of changing has its own signs and we know which kind of changing occurs by the sign. Hence since dhammah is the original sign of Raf’ and we see the dhammah on the end of Zaidun then we know the changing in Zaid is Raf’
*** IMPORTANT POINTS***
The raf` and nasb are found only in alism ألاسم and al fi’l الفعل.
The jarr is found only in al ism and never in the Fi’l
The jazm is found only in the Fi’l and never in the ism.
The harf does not have any I’raab.
أعوذ فعل مضارع A`uudhu Fi’lun Mudhaari’
- “a`uudhu” is a present tense verb
علامة مضارعته الهمزة فى أّوّله Alaamatu mudhaari atihi al hamzatu fee awwalihi
- The sign of the mudhaari` is the hamzah in its beginning
وعلامة رفعه ضم آخره Wa alaamatu raf’ihi dhummu aakhirihi
- And the sign of it being marfuu` is a dhammah at its end.
*** The word which has the changing of Raf’ رفع is said to be marfuu’ مرفوع***
*** TEACHER SAYS THAT ONE DAY SOON HE WILL TEACH US THE STORY OF THE TANWEEN***
Q: A`uudhu is f`ilun mudhaari`, but how do we know it is a fi’l?
A: it points to 2 things a meaning which is seeking refuge and the time that meaning takes place which is present time called haal. [A`uudhu means: “I am seeking refuge” ( in the present time)].
Q: What is the sign of it being Mudhaari`?
A: having hamzah at the beginning
Q: What is the sign of Raf’ in A`uudhu?
A: The dhammah
Q: What is the factor making a`uudhu marfuu`? ( ie in the state of Raf’)?
A: The factor causing the f`il mudhaari` to be marfuu` is having no factor of nasb or jazm coming before it since the factor which causes the fi’l mudhaari to be in a state of Raf` ( ie Marfuu`) is the absence of a physical factor (words) but rather the mental factor or state which it is in.
Q: What Possible changes can you find in the f`il?
A: The possible types of changing found in the fi’l are Raf , nasb and jazm.
Q: What will cause the Raf’?
A: Raf’ should be the original state which the Mudhaari’ will be in. If we had to give the mudhaari` a default state of changing then it is raf’.
Q: What brings about the change to another state?
A: The `awaamil is what brings about the change.
If there is no factor to bring about the change of nasb or jazm then such a verb will be in its default state which is ar-raf’ and this factor is said to be a mental factor as there is no physical factor present.
In the previous example: Maa ahsana zaidun ما أحسن زيد ahsana changed to be in state of raf` but Ahsana is a different factor as it is a physical factor (a word). But the factor bringing about the raf` in a`uudhu is a mental factor as there is no word before it to act as a physical factor.
***It is impossible to have more than one changing in one word at the same time.***
IMPORTANT: In Nahw there are only two mental factors, all the rest are physical- ie all words. The two mental factors are: 1.) Before the Ism and 2.) Before the f`il mudhaari’. A Physical factor is a word and a mental factor is a state.
*** PRINCIPLE: Maadh and amr do not have I’raab just like the harf.***
Q: What is the difference between signs and factors?
A: Signs are the signs of the changing and factors are what cause the changing.
Any f`il mudhaari` not preceded by a factor of nasb or jazm is marfuu`
The default state of raf` is a mental factor.