بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.
Small Review >>>
- The Mudaari’ can take I’raab if it is placed in a sentence and the default I’raab that the Mudaari gets is Raf’ and the default sign of Raf’ is a Dhammah
- The Harf, the Maadh , the Amr and the Dhamaa-ir they all don’t get I’raab
The definition of Al I’raab الإعراب is the changing of the end of the word due to the different factors preceding it
The opposition of I’raab is Al Binaa– البناء – And it’s definition is: The end of the word remaining in one state which does not change, not because of a Factor (‘Aamil)
- The cause of ‘Iraab is because of the different Factors and the opposite of that is not because of a Factor
Example of Binaa- with different sentences where the word plays a different role in each one of them:
مَنْ , the end of this word has a sukoon and this sign will remain in one state, it does not change no matter what factors precede it or what role it takes in a sentence, and this is because it takes the rule of Binaa-
مَن يُدَرِّسُنَا أُستَاذٌ فَاضِل (Man yudarrisunaa Ustaadhun Faadhil) – Who teaches us is a noble teacher.
جَاءَ مَنْ يُدَرِّسُنَا (Jaa-a man yudarrisunaa)- Who teaches us came
سَمِعتُ مَن يُدَرِّسُنَا (Sami’tu man yudarrisunaa)- I heard who teaches us
مَرَرتُ بِمَن يُدَرِّسُنَا (Marartu biman yudarrisunaa)- I passed by who teaches us
- In the first sentence مَن يُدَرِّسُنَا أُستَاذٌ فَاضِل , here the word ‘من’ deserves to have the state of Raf’ ( meaning: if it was replaced by a word that can take I’raab it would be in the state of Raf’, because the place it is placed in is subjected to Raf’)-
- As mentioned in an other class that if a sentence was started by a Noun (ism) its state of I’raab would be Raf’ and its Factor is a Mental Factor which is ‘It starting with an Ism’
- In the second sentence جَاءَ مَنْ يُدَرِّسُنَا , here the word ‘مَن’ deserves to have the state of Raf’
- جَاء is فِعل مَاض (Past tense)- And whatever Ism proceeds the Maadh deserves to have Raf’, because the fi’l in general is a Factor causing the Noun (ism) after it to have Raf’
- And this Noun (ism) that comes after the fi’l expresses the one who has done that action (expresses the doer of that action)
- جَاءَ فَهدٌ (Jaa-a Fahdun) Fahd came – جَاء is a Fi’l and فهد is an Ism, and that ism deserves Raf’ and its sign is a Dhammah and it expresses the person doing that action (the one who came is Fahd, so he is the doer of that coming)
- The doer always gets always Raf’
- ضَرَبَ فَهدٌ خَالِدا (Dharaba Fahdun Khaalidan) Fahd hit Khaalid –
Q: Who is the hitter?
Q: How did we know that Fahd is the hitter?
A: Because it has Raf’ and it proceeded the fi’l.
Khaalid is the receiver of hitting and the receiver gets the state of Nasb (indicating that it is the receiver of the action)
- The original sign of Nasb is a Fathah
- In the third sentence سَمِعتُ مَن يُدَرِّسُنَا here the word ‘من’ deserves to have the state of Nasb
- سَمِعتُ means: I heard – That what expresses ‘I’ is ‘تُ’ and it is Al-mutakkalim (the speaker). And the one who expresses the hearing is ‘I’ which is the ‘تُ’. The one who received the action of the hearing is that what comes after it ‘مَن’ . So who have you heard? I heard who teaches us
- سَمِعَ means: He heard – In this verb there is no harf ‘illah, so this is not a mu’tal
- من in the sentence سَمِعتُ مَن يُدَرِّسُنَا has the same role like خالدا in ضَرَبَ فَهدٌ خَالِدا – Both are the receivers of the action.
- مَن it is not having Nasb because it is Mabnee it doesn’t take I’raab in the first place
- In the fourth sentence مَرَرتُ بِمَن يُدَرِّسُنَا here the word ‘من’ deserves to have the state of Jarr
- Whatever Noun (ism) comes after the harf ‘ب’ deserves Jarr and the orignial sign of it is a Kasrah
- In بِسمِ الله الرحمن الرحيم – here we say ‘bismi’ and not ‘bismu’ or ‘bisma’, this because this noun comes after the harf ‘ب’ so it takes Jarr- And that because the ‘ب’ is a Factor of Jarr
- Here ‘من’ didn’t get a kasrah because it is Mabnee
What are the four types of I’raab?
1) Raf’ and the word having Raf’ is called Marfoo’ مَرفُوع
2) Nasb and the word having Nasb is called Mansoob مَنصُوب
3) Jarr and the word having Jarr is called Majroor مَجرُور
4) Jazm and the word having Jazm is called Majzoom مَجزُوم
What are the four types of Binaa-?
1) If it is fixed on a Dhammah it is called: مبني على الضم (Mabniyyun ‘aladh-dhamm)
2) If it is fixed on a Fathah it is called: مبني على الفتح (Mabniyyun ‘alal-fath)
3) If it is fixed on a Kasrah it is called: مبني على الكسر (Mabniyyun ‘alal-kasr)
4) If it is fixed on a Sukoon it is called: مبني على السكون (Mabniyyun ‘alas-sukoon)
- The word having I’raab is called Mu’rab مُعرب
- The word having Binaa- is called Mabniyy مَبنِيّ
- It is wrong to say مبني على الضمة/الفتحة/الكسرة (giving it a taa marbootah)
- Examples of Mabniyy:
حَيثُ: مبني على الضم
أينَ : مبني على الفتح
أمسِ: مبني على الكسر
مَنْ : مبني على السكون
- حَيث means: Which/where
- أين means: Where
- Some Nouns (Asmaa-) take binaa-
~~~ End of Dars ~~~
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله