بسم الله الرحمن االرحيم
Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.
The four kinds of af’aal are:
1) Saalim سَالِم
2) Mu’tall مُعتَلّ
3) Mudaa’af مُضَاعَف
4) Mahmooz مَهمُوز
- Mu’tal is a verb containing one of hurooful ‘illah و,ي,ا
New Notes >>>
Some more examples of the Principle that says: Every waaw or yaa having a harakah and preceded by a fathah turns into an alif
- دَعَوَ became دَعَا , means: (he) called
Step 1: The ‘waaw’ has a harakah وَ
Step 2: The harakah preceding has a fathah عَ
Step 3: Turn it into an alif دَعَا
- رَجَوَ became رَجَا , means: (he) hoped
Step 1: The ‘waaw’ has a harakah وَ
Step 2: The harakah preceding has a fathah جَ
Step 3: Turn it into an alif رَجَا
- بَنَيَ became بَنَى , means: (he) built
Step 1: The ‘yaa’ has a harakah يَ
Step 2: The harakah preceding has a fathah نَ
Step 3: Turn it into an alif بَنَى
- Only the alif of hurooful ‘illah doesn’t come in the beginning, but the waaw and the yaa they can come in the beginning of a word. And the alif which does come in the beginning is not of hurooful ‘illah but it is either hamzatul wasl همزة الوصل or hamzatul Qat’ هَمزة القَطع
There are two ways of writing an Alif- There is a standing alif ا (this one can be found in the middle or in the end) and a sitting alif ى (can only be found in the end).
So this means that there are two ways of writing an Alif at the end. This to indicate the original letter it was turned from before being an alif. If the alif originally is a waaw it is written as a standing alif ا , and if it is originally a yaa it is written as a sitting alif ى . Like with بَنَى it is written with a sitting alif because it was originally a بَنَيَ (a yaa) and دَعَا is written with a standing alif because it was originally a دَعَوَ (a waaw).
The Maadhiy and its Mudaari’
There are three forms of the Maadhiy and three forms of the Mudaari’
Maadh: فَعَلَ , فَعِلَ, فَعُلَ
Mudaari’: أَفعُلُ , أَفعِلُ , أَفعَلُ
The idea of the Maadhiy with its Mudaari’ is that there are certain combinations to follow- Meaning that every form of the Maadhiy has a certain form of its Mudaari’
فَعَلَ has all three forms of the Mudaari’ , meaning that you can find a Maadh on the scale of فَعَلَ (fa’ala) that will have a Mudaari’ on the scale of أَفعُلُ (af’ulu) or أَفعِلُ (af’ilu) or أَفعَلُ(af’alu)
فَعَلَ- أفعُلُ as for example عَبَدَ – أَعبُدُ
فَعَلَ – أَفعِلُ as for example جَلَسَ – أَجلِسُ
فَعَلَ – أَفعَلُ as for example فَتَحَ – أَفتَحُ
- Sometimes you can find a Maadh having two forms of a Mudaari’
- You never can find an combination of the Maadh with its Mudaari’ on the scale of فَعِلَ – أفعُلُ or فَعُلَ – أَفعَلُ or فَعُلَ – أفعِلُ
- فَعَلَ has three possible combination with its Mudaari’ and فَعِلَ has two possible combinations with its Mudaari’ and فَعُلَ has only one possible combination with its Mudaari’- This means that there are 6 combinantions to follow
- There are certain principles of when the Maadhiy gets a certain combination of its Mudaari’ (this we will get in Sarf classes in shaa Allaah)
أَعُوذُ is of the first combination فَعَلَ – أَفعُلُ
- عَاذَ is on the scale of فَعَلَ , it was originally عَوَذَ and because of a morphological principle the waaw changed into an alif
Q: Does أَعُوذُ (A’oodhu) sound like أَفعُلُ (Af’ulu)?
A: No, it doesn’t
To make it sound like أَفعُلُ (af’ulu) it should be أَعوُذُ (a’wudhu)
*Rule: Both the Dhammah and the Kasrah are heavy on the Waaw or the Yaa*
Q: Is the dhammah on the waaw heavy? Yes
Q: Is the dhammah on the yaa heavy? Yes
Q: is the kasrah on the yaa heavy? Yes
Q: is the kasrah on the waaw heavy? Yes
*The Major Principles with the Arab’s speech: Seeking lightness (in speech) *
- If the Arabs find something heavy on the tongue they will make it light in a certain way- They will either drop/delete the letter, move the harakah from its place to another place or drop it. (When they make something from heavy to light they go for the less possible changing)
- أَعوُذُ (a’wudhu) is heavy and that what made it heavy is the dhammah on the waaw and because of that they decided to make it lighter. They saw that the letter before the waaw has no harakah (it is vacant from any harakah), so they gave the dhammah to its neighbor (the ‘ayn) and it became from أَعوُذُ to أَعُوذُ. And this is the story of every fi’l Mu’tall having a waaw in the middle.
Small exercises >>>
Q: a فعل is a part of what?
A: It is a part of الكلمة (Al Kalimah)
Q: What does مُضارِع (Mudaari’) mean?
A: It is a part of a فِعل (fi’l)
Q: What is the sign of أَعُوذُ being a مُضارِع ?
A: the Hamzah at the beginning
Q: What is the sign of it being Marfoo’ مَرفُوع (having Raf’)
A: It’s the dhammah at its end
Q: Mu’tall مُعتل is one of the kinds of what?
A: Of the fi’l فعل (but from the morphological aspect)
The Text >>>
وَهُوَ فِعلٌ مُعتَلٌّ لأَنَّ عَينَ الفِعلِ وَاوٌ, وَالأَصلُ أَعْوُذُ [ عَلَى مِثَال أَفعُلُ ]
(wahuwa fi’lun mu’tallun li-anna ‘aynal fi’li waawun, wal aslu a’wudhu [‘alaa mithaali af’ulu])
And it is a verb which is Mu’tall (contains hurooful ’illah), because the ‘ayn of the verb (fi’l) is a waaw, and the Origin (its original form) is أَعْوُذُ (a’wudhu) [on the scale of أَفعُلُ (af’ulu)]
The first original letter is called: فَاءُ الكَلِمَة (faa-ul Kalimah)
The second original letter is called: عَينُ الكَلِمَة (‘aynul Kalimah)
The third original letter is called: لاَمُ الكَلِمَة (laamul Kalimah)
- As for example: عَاذَ has three letters and the first letter ‘ayn is reflecting the faa (of the scale فعل), and that’s why they call it the faa of the kalimah فاء الكلمة – the second letter waaw (its original letter) is reflecting the ‘ayn (of the scale فعل), and that’s why they call it the ‘ayn of the kalimah عين الكلمة– And the third letter dhaal is reflecting the laam (of the scale ), and that’s why they call it the laam of the kalimah لام الكلمة
- The reason why the author said: ‘because the ‘ayn of the verb is a waaw’ and not an alif, is because the original letter of the alif is a waaw. When they identify a word they always use the original form of it.
فَاستَثقَلُوا الضَّمَّةَ عَلَى الوَاوِ فَنُقِلَتْ إِلَى العَينِ فَصَارَتْ أَعُوذُ, وَكَذَلِكَ أَقُولُ وَأَزُولُ وَمَا كَانَ مِثلَهُ فَهَذِهِ عِلَّتُهُ
(fastathqaludh dhammata ‘alal waawi fanuqilat ilal ‘ayni faSaarat a’oodhu, wakadhaalika aqoolu wa azoolu wamaa kaana mithlahu fahadhihi ‘illatuhu)
They took as heavy the dhammah on the waaw so it was moved to the ‘ayn so it became أَعُوذُ (a’oodhu), and so is أَقُولُ and أَزُولُ and whatever was simular to/like it this is its reason
- فَ means: so
- The same we did with أَعُوذُ we do with its kind أَقُولُ , أَزُولُ , they where originally أَقوُلُ , أَعوُذُ , and they are Mu’tall, because the ‘ayn of alkalimah is a waaw
- أَقُولُ : I say- it is from قَالَ
- أَزُولُ : I move- it is from زَالَ
- عِلَّتُه means: its reason
- فنُقِلَتْ means: so it was moved
~~~ End of Dars ~~~
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله