Kitaab at-Taariqiyyah Class 15
Alhamdu lillaahi Rabbil `Alameen wa salal laahu wa sallama alaa nabiyyina Muhammad wa alaa ashaabi wa man tabi ahum bi ihsaanin ilaa yawmid deen amma ba’d:
REVIEW and CLARIFICATION >>>
The definition of Al-Kalimah is a word pointing out a meaning. It is 3 parts:
Each one of those three is a kalimah and each one points to a meaning.
Teacher says we must focus on the definitions before the principles –the definitions make you see the reality and only when you see the reality of something can you give it a ruling that fits it best.
The story of the tanween is a long story that we will learn in more advanced stage in shaa’Allaah as it falls under the different levels of the ism.
Q: What part of kalimah are the seen and sawfa?
A: They are harf Ma`naa
Q: What do they do?
A: they change the timing of the mudhaari` from haal to istiqbaal
THE TEXT >>>
فإذَا دخلت على الفعلٌ مضارع السين أو سوف أزالتاه الى الاستقبال لا غير
faidhaa dakhalat `alal-fi`lun mudhaari` as-seen aw sawfa azaalataahu ilalistiqbaali laa ghayru
- Then if it entered on the fi`lun mudhaari` a seen or sawfa, it turns it to none but Alistiqbal.
- They (the scholars) said that the difference between the seen and sawfa the first (as-seen) points out to a nearer future than the second (sawfa). The seen is for the near future and Sawfa is for the far future. Some say they are the same but we will not get into the dispute.
- EXAMPLES FROM QUR’AAN:
48/11 – سَيَقُولُ لَكَ ٱلۡمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَعۡرَابِ شَغَلَتۡنَآ أَمۡوَٲلُنَا وَأَهۡلُونَا فَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَنَاۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلۡسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيۡسَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمۡۚ قُلۡ فَمَن يَمۡلِكُ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا إِنۡ أَرَادَ بِكُمۡ ضَرًّا أَوۡ أَرَادَ بِكُمۡ نَفۡعَۢاۚ بَلۡ كَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرَۢا
Those of the bedouins who lagged behind will say to you: “Our possessions and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us.” They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: “Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with Allâh, if He intends you hurt or intends you benefit? Nay, but Allâh is Ever All-Aware of what you do.
Q: How may words is Sayaquulu?
A: It is 2 words: Seen (harf) and yaquulu (fi`lun Mudhaari`)
Q: What is the sign of the mudhaari` in “yaquulu”?
A: It is the yaa’ before the fi`l.
Q: What does the mudhaari` alone give as timing?
Q: What does it give now with the aid of seen attached to it?
A: Istiqbaal (future)
Q: IS this the near future or the far future?
A: Near Future.
4/56 إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا سَوۡفَ نُصۡلِيہِمۡ نَارً۬ا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلۡنَـٰهُمۡ جُلُودًا غَيۡرَهَا لِيَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمً۬ا
Surely! Those who disbelieved in Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment. Truly, Allâh is Ever Most Powerful, All¬Wise.
Q: What is sawfa?
Q: Does it indicate the near future or the far future?
A: Far future
Q: Is this clear from the verse?
A: Yes because they will enter Hell in the Hereafter- it is respectively far (otherwise it is near maashaa’Allaah)
- Examples in the Qur’aan are many – including 102/3-4…
Attaching the seen or the sawfa to the mudhaari`. Teacher will give English meaning on the twelve forms of a`uudhu and we bring it in Arabic:
They both will seek refuge in the far future —- sawfa ya`uudhaani
He will seek refuge in the near future —- saya`uudhu
The group of women will seek refuge in the far future —- sawfa ya`udhna
I will seek refuge tomorrow —- saa`uudhu
She will seek refuge after tomorrow —- sata`uudhu
The group of men will say in the far future —- sawfa yaquuluuna
You group of women shall say in the near future —- sataqulna
The group of women shall say in the near future —- sayaqulna
You (male) will say in the near future —- sataquulu
She will say in the near future —- sataquulu
You female will say in the far future —- sawfa taquuleena
THE TEXT >>>
و عَوْذًا مَصْدَرٌ, wa `awdhan masdarun
- And ‘Awdhan is the masdar
- Masdar literally means “a source”
- It is called that technically because it is the source of the different forms.
- That means the point of changing starts from the masdar.
- The name you give to an act one does – the name of the action itself. (the act of eating, the act of running, the act of teaching etc…)
- All masdars are Asmaa (plural of Ism)
SOME IMPORTANT POINTS >>>
- When bringing different forms of a kalimah – bring first the maadhee then the mudhaari` then the masdar. In every word we take first we will be given the maadhee than the mudhaari` than the masdar. That is why the author said `aadha ya`uudhu `awdhan عاذ – he sought refuge, يعوذ– he seeks refuge عوضًا – a seeking of refuge.
- One verb could have more than one masdar – there could be more than one masdar to each verb but at least every verb should have a masdar.
Teacher will give certain verbs (the maadhee) on pattern of `aadha, ya`uudhu, `awdhan and students provide the mudhaari and masdar
- Qaala —- Yaquulu, Qawlan he said, he says, a saying
- Baa`a — Yabee`u, Bay`an he sold, he sells, a selling (here the yaa is the original letter not a waaw)
- Maala —- Yameelu, Maylan he tilted, he tilts, a tilting
The masdar is on the scale of Fa`lan. Therefore we have taken a masdar on the scale of fa`l فَعَلَ يَفْعَلُ فَعْلًا
The masdar is not mabnee it is ma`raab – it can take I`raab.
It cannot take a jazm because it is an Ism
FROM THE QUESTIONS >>>
- we will be acting on making the source be the verbal noun(Masdar)
- tanween is harf ma`naa
- masdar is on scale of fa`l it is Maraab – we will give it a nasb (taking a fatha) for a reason to be explained later
- A reciting and a recitation are both verbal nouns – both can be used
- the scale that we worked on today is fa`ala, yaf`ala, fa`lan but not every masdar is on this scale. today we learned one form of the masdar.
- This is a stepping stone – drop by drop we take the knowledge like a baby takes milk – little gulps at a atime.
- ASmaa and masaadir have harfu-`illah also
- The plurals of the three parts of kalimah are: asmaa’, Af`aal, huruuf
- Dhameer is a word used to represent/replace a name