Kitaab at Taariqiyyah Class 16
Alhamdu lillaahi Rabbil `Alameen wa salal laahu wa sallama alaa nabiyyina Muhammad wa alaa ashaabi wa man tabi ahum bi ihsaanin ilaa yawmid deen amma ba’d:
A BENEFICIAL POINT >>>
The Masdar’s original meaning is the act itself regardless the time it is to be taken.
The Masdar could be used to express the receiver (this is something we will take in Balaghah)
- Teacher explains this is a bit off course but he wished to give us a beneficial point here for those who may read further and come across a masdar used in this manner.
- خَلَقَ يَخْلُقُ خَلْقًا he created he creates a creating Now based upon the possibility of a masdar being used for other than its original meaning (for example: the receiver of the act itself) it would somethimes mean “the thing created – the creation”
*** THE MASDARS ORIGINAL MEANING IS THE ACT ITSELF AND IT CAN SOMETIMES BE USED TO EXPRESS THE OUTCOME OF THE ACT OR THE THING RECEIVING THAT ACT ***
Example of the Masdar being used to express the receiver of the action >>>
In 31/10 -11 we see the f`il (khalaqa) and the masdar…
خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ بِغَيۡرِ عَمَدٍ۬ تَرَوۡنَہَاۖ وَأَلۡقَىٰ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ رَوَٲسِىَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمۡ وَبَثَّ فِيہَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ۬ۚ وَأَنزَلۡنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَأَنۢبَتۡنَا فِيہَا مِن ڪُلِّ زَوۡجٍ۬ كَرِيمٍ (10)هَـٰذَا خَلۡقُ ٱللَّهِ فَأَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِۦۚ بَلِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬ (11)
He has created the heavens without any pillars that you see and has set on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with you. And He has scattered therein moving (living) creatures of all kinds. And We send down water (rain) from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein. (10) This is the creation of Allâh. So show Me that which those (whom you worship), besides Him have created. Nay, the Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong¬doers and those who do not believe in the Oneness of Allâh) are in plain error.
- The i`raab changes according to its role and place in the sentence as well as the different factors effecting it.
- أَكَلَ يَأْكُلُ أَكْلًا the masdar here is أَكْلٌ it has been given a nasb for a reason. Aklun means: the act of eating but it can also mean the thing which is eaten – food
- عَلِمَ يَعْلَمُ إِلمًا(here it is another form of a masdar) he knew – he knows – a knowing the masdar means “the act of knowing” and it also means “the thing which is known” – KNOWLEDGE
- نحا ينحو نحوًا (means “headed towards” – ) Nahwan is marfoo` and the masdar Nahwun is mansuub. Nahw has 14 meanings but the main meaning of it قسد is “aiming for something or wanting to get to something” and the masdar also means the thing which is sought or wanted – here you can see the relationship calling grammar Nahw … it is because it is a knowledge that is sought by people as a goal
*** These are principles and every time we add more branches so students must refer to their notes***
The author gave all the masaadir that `aadha has and so he continued…
THE TEXT >>>
و إنْ شئتَ قُلْتَ عَاذَ مَعَاذًا وعَوْذَةً وعِيَاذًا, كُلّ ذَلِكَ صَوَابwa in shi’ta qulta `aadha ma`aadhan wa `awdhatan wa `iyadhan kullu dhaalika sawaab And if you wish you say – `aadha ma`aadhan wa `awdhatan wa `iyadhan all of that is correct.
- The author has given 3 more masaadir for a total of 4 masaadir for `Aadha.
وعائِذٌ اسمُ الفاعِلِ , واسمُ المفعول مَعوذٌ بِه , والأمرُ عُذْwa `aa’idhunismul-faa`il
- And “`aa’idhun” is “Ismul-Faa`il”
- What is Ismul-faa`il? Basically it is the name of the doer of a certain act (the carpenter, the eater, the walker, etc.. – the name of the person doing the act)
- Technically it is an ISM pointing out TWO THINGS (How can that be? We were told that ISM points out to 1 thing only!) But here it is resembling the verb because it is pointing out to two things, and here we have a major principle:
*** The resembling takes the ruling of the thing it resembles***
- So now it (the ismul-faa`il) has entered another zone where it took some of the verbs characteristics.
- Sometimes the ism resembles the f`il and sometimes it resembles the harf. This is not the default state of the ism but it is a state it takes sometimes. For example, sometimes the ism resembles a harf. Now how is that? Take for example the word “man” مَنْ (WHO) it is an ism no doubt but here we find it only has 2 letters and we were told that the least you can find an ism on is 3 letters – so by having only 2 letters it is resembling a harf so in accordance with that major principle it will take the ruling of the harf and since the harf takes binaa than the word “man” will also take binaa – it is mabnee.
- Sometimes the ism could resemble the f`il – not a full resembling but a partial one (there is a difference between full resemblance and partial resemblance)
- Here Ismul-Faa`il resembled the f`il. HOW SO???
- Aadha points out to 2 things: the act(meaning) and the time it took place — Seeking refuge that took place in the past
- The ismul-faa`il `aaidhun also points out two things: the meaning AND the person. The person seeking refuge.
- So the maadh and the ismul-faa`il have in common the meaning (the act). And we have taken before that every act has to have a doer – so just as the f`il is a factor affecting the doer so will be ismul-faa`il.
- What is important here is that we know that ismul-faa`il is the doer `aaidhun is on the scale of faa`ilun
- قال يقول قولًا فهو قائلٌ
- باع يبيع بيعا فهو بائع
- أكل يأكل أكلا فهوآكلٌ
- * And this is just one of the forms of ismul-faa`il
From the Questions >>>
- Ismul-faa-il and faa`il are two way different things
- Al-Qaari`ah is ismul-faa`il
- In Balaghah we will learn about when masdar is the receiver
- Aakilun is ismul-faa`il akilun is an exaggeration meaning he eats too much
- Ismul-faa`il is the name of the doer whereas faa`il is a technical term that points out to just the doer regardless of the act he has done – it only points this one thing.
- There is a principle we will be given later about the waaw or yaa being changed to a hamzah in the ismul-faa`il inshaa’Allaah
- Qaar`iah is ismul-faa`il with the feminine taa added to the end.