Arabic – Morphology – Level One – Class 13

Thursday, March 01, 2012

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

All the praises are to Allaah, we praise Him, seek His Aid and ask His Forgiveness. May the peace and blessings and salawaat be upon His slave and Messenger Muhammad – Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, his house of kin and companions and all who follow them exactly until the Day of Judgement.

~~~~~

TOPIC: Conjugating the Maadhee continued …

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Letters ( and most words in the Arabic language) have genders, either masculine or feminine.   it is important to know this so that we know which form to use, i.e. do we add a taa’ut-ta’neeth or not?

We will start by focussing on forming the verb dharaba so that we can understand better the  principles –  and later we will learn more forms of different verbs with more vocabs In shaa’Allaah.

We finished the mutakallim (ana and nahnu)  Ana means I and Nahnu means We.  The difference between the Ana and the taa is that the ana is detached and the taa is attached  (tu means “ana’).  Naa is equivalent to Nahnu in meaning but naa comes attached and nahnu is seperated.  And the same with the rest —  ana nahnu anta anti antum  etc…  They all give the same meaning as the attached letters we have been learning –  the taa of the doer  the naa of the doers etc…

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Al-Mukhaatab – the one spoken to.
 
Dharaba (ضَرَبَ) =  He hit. 
 
Q1:  If we want to bring Dharaba on the form of You (single male) hit, what do we do?
A1:  Add a taa with a fathah and silence the baa.  This taa is called Taa’ul-mukhaatab تاء المخاطب  –  taa of the one spoken to.  It is the taa which points out the one spoken to.  so we say Dharabta (ضَرَبْتَ) for the single male spoken to.
 
Q2:  How many taa have been mentioned thus far?
A2:  Three.  The taa’ut-ta’neethis-saakinah, the taa’ut-ta’neethil-mutaharrikah, and the taa’ul faa`il.
 
Q3: What is the job of taa’ut-ta’neethis-saakinah?
A3:  To point out that the one whom the act is referred to is a female and it is only a sign of the maadhee f`il, it is an open taa’ and is used strictly for the madhee to point out that the doer of this act is a feminine doer.  Examples:  Dharabat (ضَرَبَتْ), fa`alat(فَعَلَتْ). 
 
Q4: What is the Taa’ut-ta’neeth al-mutaharrikah used with?
A4:  It is a closed taa’ that has a harakah and is only a sign of the Ism – it is only used at the end of an Ism and points out femininity of the Ism .  Examples:   `Aabidah (عَابِدَة), Kaafirah (كَافِرًة).  *It is only pronounced as a taa’ when it is joined to the word after it, otherwise when we stop on it we pronoundce it as a silent haa’ (هـ).
 
Q5: What does Taa’ul-faa`il mean and what does it do?
A5: It means “the taa’ of the doer”.  It points out to the one speaking. – al mutakallim. It can be called Taa’ul-mutakallim or taa’ul-faa`il.  Example: Dharabtu (ضَرَبْتُ)
 
Q6: What is the 4th taa’ we have taken?
A6: Taa’ul-mukhaatab.  It point out to the one being spoken to.  Notice we did not say:  “Taa’ul mukhaatabah (ti)” but we said: Taa’ul- mukhaatab.  If we added a closed taa’ on the end it would mean femininity.   Example: Dharabta (ضَرَبْتَ)  It has a fathah on it.
 
Q7: What do we call the taa that is used to point to the female that is being spoken to?
A7:  This taa is called taa’ul mukhaatabah.  It has a kasrah on it.  Example:  Dharabti (ضَرَبْتِ).
 
Q8: What do we use if we want to refer the Maadhee to two people –  two males, two females, or a mixed couple?
A8:  We add “tumaa” to the end of the maadhee.  Example:  Dharabtumaa  (ضَرَبْتُمَا).
 
Q9:  What if we want to point out to agroup of males or a mixed group?
A9:  We add “tum” at the end of the maddhee –  Example: Dharabtum (ضَرَبْتُمْ).  This indicates speaking to a group of males or a mixed group.
 
Q10: What if we want to direct the speech to a group of females only?
A10:  We add “Tunna” at the end of the madhee.  We add a taa’ and a Noon Mushaddadah.  Example:  Dharabtunna (ضَرَبْتُنَّ).  When we stop on it we hold the ghunnah (nasal sound) on the noon for a little longer.
 
End of Dars.
 
 

One thought on “Arabic – Morphology – Level One – Class 13

  1. Ayesha March 3, 2012 at 2:07 pm Reply

    beneficial!…jazakAllahukhairan

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