These notes cover the teachers introductory classes to the archived Ramadhaan course: Kitaab At-Tawheed and the explanation of the introduction to the book.
Teachers Introduction to the Course
The explanation will be brief – it is the level of forming the foundation for every Muslim not just the student of knowledge – it is learning tawheed.
Seeking knowledge has 2 levels:
- This is for every Muslim – gaining knowledge of tawheed comes first in order to worship correctly. This first level is lifting the ignorance of what you are obligated to do as a Muslim – it is obligatory for every Muslim to know the `aqeedah and the fiqh and obligations and prohibitions.
- This is for those who are starting on the way to be of the people of knowledge who are able and who have the tools to extract the rulings – This second level is knowledge of Arabic language and it is a priority as it is the key to the Arabic sciences.
Our way is going to be very simple: Only shedding light on words or verses that are related to the topic of the book. – Our teacher will give just definitions and principles –that is it.
Advices about definitions:
If you master the meanings everything else is easy (this is a rule in every Islamic science you will learn) because the definition clarifies to you the meaning and you can never know the ruling unless you know the meaning.
An advice to every Student of Knowledge – present or absent:
If you want to master any type of knowledge then the first level is to take care of the definitions given – understand and memorize and master them. After that also pay high attention to the principles as they are your foundation. You can easily build every future piece of information you get on the principles you understand. And as long as you stop at what you don’t know, you are not blamed if you fit an example in your daily life to something based on a principle when in reality there is an exception to the principle. But as long as you did not know that exception and you stopped at what you know – then you are not blamed. For example the ruling on photography is haram – so based on that principle you do not take pictures. But there are exceptions to this principle, but you do not know them – then you as an individual stop at what you know – making images is haram.
1 – The tawheed which the author mentioned includes all three kinds of tawheed but as usual he has focused on tawheed al uluhiyyah because this is the part of tawheed where people have differed much and that is why we see this book of tawheed mainly around the topic of tawheed Al-uluhiyyah although there are chapters regarding the other types of tawheed such as chapter 66: the Chapter on the verse “they have not appraised Allaah with true appraisal” has to do with Ar rubuubiyyah
2 – The author suffices with Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem – he suffices with bismillaah in his writings and he suffices with alhamdulillaah in his lectures. He did not use both in his writings and this is closest to the Prophets way sallallaahu`alayhi wassallam. We see this in Saheeh Al-Bukhaari hadeeth #7 and the letter that he sallallaahu`alayhi wassallam sent to Heracules. This is the choice of some people of knowledge and the opinion that the author chooses because it is closest to the daleel since there is no daleel that he sallallaahu`alayhi wassallam used them both in any of his lectures or used them both in any of his writings.
3 – Sometimes the author could use a verse as the title of a chapter. Ex: The chapter regarding Allaah’s saying so and so …
4 – the author gathered in his book the evidence from the book of Allaah and the Prophets sunnah -sallallaahu`alayhi wassallam and the saying of the first three generations the Salaf and whoever followed them of the rightly guided scholars- people of knowledge. This alone is a very strong refutation against the people who oppose his DA`WAH (those who oppose say he came with a new religion or a fifth madhaab).
We will clarify 2 things regarding chapters and evidence mentioned in the Kitaab at Tawheed:
- Relevance of the chapter to the book of Tawheed (Why a chapter was put in the book and what is its relationship (EX: Chapter: The Fear of falling into shirk)
- Relevance of the verse or hadeeth to the Chapter (in chapter of fear of falling into shirk: contains the verse: …Indeed Allaah does not forgive association with him) this makes you fear falling into polytheism if you know shirk is not forgiven.
INTRODUCTION: At-Tawheed (some refer to it as chapter one but this is not correct-it is a scientific introduction that makes you acknowledge the ruling of Tawheed [recall the 10 concepts that should be known before embarking on the study of any science].) It is about clarifying the obligation of tawheed on all the jinn and mankind. This is the relevance of the first verse to the intro.
1 VERSE: 51:56 And I (Allaah) did not create jinn or mankind except that they should worship me Alone
2 VERSE: 16:36 “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger(proclaiming): ‘Worship Allah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taghut (all false deities etc. i.e. do not worship Taghut besides Allah).’ ”
Relevance of this verse (and everything that comes after it here) to the intro: the obligation of Tawheed (monotheism) on every nation by the point that every Messenger has called to it.
3 VERSE 17:23 24 “And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutifulto your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to thema word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: ‘My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was small.’ “
4 VERSE 4:36 “Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship.”
5 VERSE 6:151-153 “Say (O Muhammad May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him ): Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty -We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sins (illegal sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly, and kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law), This He has commanded you that you may understand. And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he (or she) attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person, but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word (i.e. judge between men or give evidence, etc.), say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfill the Covenant of Allah. This He commands you, that you may’ remember. And verily, this is My Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. This He has ordained for you that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious).”
6 HADEETH from Ibn Masuud: Whoever wishes to ascertain the very will of Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) on which the Prophet has put his seal, let him read the Statement of Allah: “Say (O Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) ): Come, I willrecite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him… (up to)…And verily, this is My Straight Path.”(6:151-153) This is because if the Prophet had written a will it would not have been other than Allaahs command which He has commanded in His book.
7 HADEETH from Muaddh ibn Jabal I was riding behind the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) on a donkey and he said to me “O Mu’adh, do you know what is the right of Allah on his slaves and what is the right of the slaves upon Allah?” I responded: “Allah and His Messenger know best.” He continued, “The Right of Allah upon His slaves is to worship Him Alone and never to associate anything with him. The right of slaves upon Him is not to punish any person who does not associate anything with Him.” I said: “O Allah’s Messenger, may I not give the glad tidings to the people?” He replied: “No. Do not inform them lest they rely on (this promise and lapse in their service to Him).” [The above Hadith is mentioned in two Sahih Books (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)]
- Wisdom of Allaah in creating jinn and mankind (evidenced in 51:56)
- Worship is tawheed as, in this issue there had always been dispute (between the Prophets and the polytheists) (Evidenced in 51:56)
Ibnu Abbaas said the point is not just in worshipping as this alone would not distinguish between Muslims and polytheists and the real worship is none other than the worship is given solely to Him. He said: ya`budoon is yuwahhidoon He is pointing out to the right worship because of the dispute between the monotheists and the polytheists, SINGLING OUT ALLAAH IN WORSHIP.
3. Those who have not fulfilled the requirements of tawheed are such as though they have not worshipped Allaah (evidenced in 51:56) and in this sense is saying of 109:3 nor will I worship that which you worship
– their worship is not counted as a worship because it is based on shirk.
4. The wisdom in sending the messengers -> Evidenced by 16/36
5. The message (of tawheed) encompassed every nation -> Evidenced by 16/36…fee kulli Ummah…
6. The religion of all prophets is one -> Evidenced by 16/36 … proclaiming worship Allaah and avoid taghoot …. The term Islaam has a general meaning and a specific meaning. The general is the religion of all the prophets – it is the same `Aqeedah
3/67 -> Ibraahim (Abraham) was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islaamic Monotheism – to worship none but Allaah Alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikuun. Other evidences in 7/126, 2/126 and 2/132.
So the general meaning is worshipping Allaah Alone and avoiding At-Taghoot. The specific meaning is the final religion given to Muhammad – Sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam it is what Allaah has sealed all the religions with. Evidenced by 5/3 …This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islâm as your religion….
7. is that the worship of Allah cannot be performed until Taghut is denounced and rejected. In this meaning is the saying of Allaah (2/256) “Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold.”
All the other verses in this intro explain the meaning of worship as stated in the first aayah. They don’t stop at “worship Allaah” but continue with “and avoid taghoot” Taghoot is every (false) god worshipped besides Allaah.
Two things very important: Not just avoiding taghoot, but there has to be a worship, there has to be something singled out. So if one claims monotheism but does not do any worship, this is not correct. if one wants to just be a Muslim by name by word and by heart but he is not doing any worship. In order for there to be a tawheed there has to be aworship otherwise it is not tawheed – without something singled out. You avoid taghoot first then worship Allaah. This is refutation against those who say it is only in the heart.
8. At-Taghoot is inclusive of all that is worshipped other than Allaah. Evidenced by 16/36.
9. The tremendous importance of the three entirely clear verses of Surah Al-An’am (6:151-153) among the early pious predecessors. In these verses are 10 issues, the first of which is the prohibition of Shirk.
The entirely clear verses – al muhkamat in them are ten issues… the first is do not join anything in worship with Allaah – the author is intending that those following issues were started with avoiding taghoot and worshipping Allaah. That order is the most important. Tawheed comes first. The point is that all the 10 issues were started with avoiding shirk. Allaah starts with tht which is most important
10. The clear verses in Surah Al-Isra (17:22-39) have 18 substantial issues. Allah begins them with: “Set not up with Allah any other ilah (god), (O man) or you will sit down reproved, forsaken (in the Hell-fire)”.(17:22) And ended with: “And set not up with Allah any other ilah (god) lest you should be thrown into Hell, blameworthy and rejected.” (17:39). Allah informed us the importance of these issues by saying: “This is (part) of Al-Hikmah (wisdom, good manners and high character, etc.) which your lord has inspired to you.”(17:39).
By Starting and finishing with the importance of tawheed , Allah brings out attention to the gravest of all sins.
11. The verse of Surah An-Nisaa (4:36) called “The verse of the ten rights” to which Allah the Most High begins by saying: “And worship Allah, and join none with Him in worship.”
The ten rights are the rights to your Lord, to your parents, to your neighbours, to the needy etc.. the greatest right belongs to Allaah.
12 We must note the admonition of Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) which he made before his death.
Evidenced by athar of ibn Mas`ood.
13 knowing Allah’s right upon us
evidenced in hadeeth mu`aadh. It is that we worship Him alone.
14 recognize rights of slaves on Allaah if they fulfill His right
evidenced in hadeeth Mu`aadh. – people have differed into 3 parties with regards to the issue of the right upon Allaah.
Party that transgressed – They said that this right upon Allaah is just as the right of the created upon each other. These are the mu’tazillah (they are the ones who claimed the Quraan is created). For example: say you hired someone to work for you for a month after he works for you then you pay him and this is equivalent to the work he did. These ones say that Allaah owes us – for the work we did that we oblige him to compensate us – that Allaah has to pay back the work we have done for him. This is an extreme in deviancy- it is comparing Allaah to the creation and saying our deeds are equivalent to what Allaah is supposed to pay us back with. Is what we have done for Allaah considered anything even compared to what Allaah has given us in the dunyaa?! Of course it is not! Allaah’s favour to us is far more than what our work deserves. They say that our tawheed is equal to Jannah when in reality our deeds cannot be close to even one blessing Allaah has bestowed us with – even our breaths… how many breaths comared to how many good deeds we have done in our life. Can the good deeds we do out-number the number of breaths we take? Of course not!!!!
Party that are heedless –They said there is no such thing as a right over Allaah because no one can force Allaah to do anything – that no one has the right to place an obligation over our Lord. They are al-Ashaa`irah and they also say Qur’aan is created. This is a deviation because it contradicts what Ar-Rasool sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam has said in this hadeeth. Allaah has obliged upon himself certain things – these are aayaat in the Qur’aan that bring this to light: as in 6/12 – Allaah has obliged mercy upon Himself. kataba means obliged rahmah meaning mercy. Allaah has the right to do this so who are we to say that there is no such thing as our rights on Allaah when Allaah has in fact said so.
Party in the middle – They say that this right – Allaah has made upon himself as a grace and a favor for the monotheistic believers – These are Ahlus-Sunnah wal jama`ah. The difference is in the HOW Allaah has made it obligatory on Himself – this is the difference with the mu’tazilah thought – if we do one little thing – that is worship Him while avoiding taghoot and don’t setup partners in worship with Him, He will not punish us and will give us the great favour and blessing. We worship Allaah seeking His pleasure and to enter His jannah. Gaining His Jannah does not contradict with gaining His PLeasure He is pleased that we work for this jannah that Allaah has made by His Own Hands. It is part of the pleasure of Allaah and falls under the Pleasure of Allaah.
15. This issue was unknown to most of the companions of the Prophet- Salallaahu `alayhi wa sallam. What issue? The issue of the right of the slaves upon Allaah. We cant say the issue of Allaah’s right upon the slaves because this is tawheed and the Sahaba knew tawheed.The issue that was unknown to most of the companions was the issues of the rights of the slaves upon Allaah – His not punishing those who do not join in worship him. They knew very well the tawheed as the Rasool – Sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam had spent 10 years calling them to just that.
16 – Permissibility to hide some of the knowledge for the common good (as determined by the shari`ah)
It’s a great principle of Islaam that not everything is said. There is some of the truth you have to hide because sometimes saying some of the truth can cause more harm than good especially if the person was not ready for it. In Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree it is recorded that `Ali radiyallaahu `anhu said: You should preach to the people in a way that they can easily understand. Do you like that Allaah and His messenger be denied? There is a great saying: A person is an enemy to that which he is ignorant of. If you tell a beginner in knowledge something that he cannot understand readily he may deny some of the shari`ah due to it.
There are many evidences in the Sunnah on this: When Abi Hurayrah told Umar the hadeeth of the Rasool Salallaahu alayhi wa sallam: Whoever bears witness that laa ilaha all Allaah, believing in that and certain by his heart shall enter Jannah … Umar hit Abu Hurayrah in his chest till he fell down. And he was going to give glad tidings as the Rasool Salallaahu alayhi wa sallam told him. Umar said go back oh Abu Hurayrah so Abu harayrah went back to the prophet Salallaahu alayhi wa sallam complaining about what Umar did. So the Prophet Salallaahu alayhi wa sallam asked Umar what cause him to do what he did and Umar said he feared that if the people knew it they would not compete with one another in doing good deeds. The Rasool Salallaahu alayhi wa sallam said: so then let them. And he agreed with Umar in not telling the people in order to let them compete in order to do good deeds. At that time the people were new to eemaan so this was kept from them for some time because if they were told such a thing and they were weak in eemaan it might cause them to depend on this information and cause them to leave competing in good deeds. And Depending in Allaah’s Mercy will cause you to feel safe from the torment.
The believer has to be between two things: the fear and the hope. Fearing Allaah’s punishment and hoping for His Mercy. He cannot give up on Allaah’s Mercy (Al-Qunootu mir rahmatillaah). Giving up on Allaah’s Mercy is saying that Allaah will not forgive you even though you do the means and reasons to gain that forgiveness like praying and fasting doing all that you are commanded to the best of your ability and staying away from what you are prohibited from. etc…) This is where the Khawaarij deviated. They have given up on Allaah’s Mercy until they said that the one who does major sins such as killing or adultery – this one is out of the Islaam. They have exaggerated until they have given up on Allaahs Mercy and that is why the scholars said the the Khawaarij worship Allaah with fear only. Al-Amnu min makrillaah is the opposite – to do the sins and say that Allaah will forgive you.
Al-Amnu min makrillaah … as described in 7/99… Do they feel secure against the Plan of Allaah? None feels secure from the plan of Allaah except the people who are the losers.
It is to believe that Allaah won’t punish you although you are doing means and reasons that deserving Allaah’s punishment. This is Heedlessness. The ones who do this have left doing good deeds and they say that the faith is in the heart and also that it is not a condition that a person does the good deeds in order to enter Jannah. Just as long as he belives Allaah is one and islaam is the right religion and he doesn’t harm anyone etc… This is said by many people today- it is the belief of the Murji`ah. They believe that the deeds are not part of eemaan and this is a total deviation because Allaah said in the Quraan that He made the deeds the main means and reason for entering Jannah.
Those whose lives the angels take while they are in a pious state (i.e. pure from all evil, and worshipping none but Allaah Alone) saying (to them): Salaamun ‘Alaikum (peace be on you) enter you Paradise, because of (the good) which you used to do (in the world).” (An-Nahl 16:32)
This is the Paradise which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds which you used to do (in the life of the world). (Az-Zukhruf 43:72)
And in the hadeeth recorded in Al Bukhaaree Kittabul Eemaan that the Rasool Salallaahu alayhi wa sallam said: Eemaan is 70 parts the highest is the saying laa ilaaha ill allaah and the lowest is removing obstacles off the way…. And this is an action by the body parts so Eemaan is more than just the belief in the heart and saying on the tongue
….we enter Jannah by our good deeds with Allaah’s Mercy – the means and reasons which Allaah has ordained but these are not by themselves what get us into Jannah – no – it is with Allaah’s Mercy. Our good deeds will never be equivalent with what Allaah bestows on us – we can’t even repay one bounty. The main thing that gets us into Jannah is Allaah’s Mercy and favour upon us. The good deeds are only means and reasons for us to obtain that mercy of Allaah Taalaa. We cannot depend on the good deeds as the only way to get us into Jannah – we must hope for Allaah’s Mercy because our deeds cannot ever be enough to get into the Jannah that Allaah made with His Own two Hands.
The believer is like the bird whose wings must be balanced to keep him flying and the M`umin must balance between hoping for Allaah’s mercy on one wing and fearing his torment on the other wing.
So this is why most of the companions didn’t know AT FIRST (It is in a narration that Mu`aadh spoke of it before his death because he feared falling under the saying of Allaah: … Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allaah and cursed by the cursers.[2/159])
And more proofs are … (And remember) when Allaah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the news of the coming of Prophet Muhammad Sallallaahu alayhi wa salaam and the religious knowledge) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought. (Aali Imran 3:187) This blaming falls upon anyone who hides something from the Shari`ah not just the Ahlul Kitaab. Also … And conceal not the evidence for he, who hides it, surely his heart is sinful. And Allaah is All-Knower of what you do. (Al-Baqarah 2:283) And – Verily, those who conceal what Allâh has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things), they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. Allâh will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment. (Al-Baqarah 2:174)
And other evidences in the Qur’aan that hiding the knowledge is a grave sin and this is without an excuse…
Whoever hid knowledge without an excuse determined by the shari`ah falls under those ahadeeth and aayaat that forbid hiding the truth. The Rasool Sallallaahu alayhi wa salaam said: whoever hid anything of the truth shall be in the Hellfire.
In this case there is an advantage and a disadvantage. Some things are considered an obligation and in some cases doing that obligation causes more of a disadvantage than an advantage. For Example, If someone came and put a gun to your head and asked you to curse Allaah or they will kill you the disadvantage is breaking Allaah’s order by cursing Him. The advantage is keeping your life – keeping yourself from being killed. The daleel is …Whoever disbelieved in Allaah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them is wrath from Allaah, and theirs will be a great torment (16/106) Here we see that Allaah made the exception which is for those who do it outwardly and not by heart DUE TO BEING FORCED TO DO IT.
The principle in shari`ah is that if you are faced with an advantage and a disadvantage and deeming that disadvantage will cause MORE of a disadvantage then you break it and do the disadvantage. Avoiding a disadvantage comes as a priority before gaining the advantage and this principle is applied and decided by the PEOPLE OF KNOWLEDGE ONLY!
Advantage is sharing the knowledge which is the truth from Allaah but the disadvantage is sharing the knowledge at this particular time. In a particular time, It could cause a deviation more than it could cause a guidance Subhaanallaah. It requires great wisdom and you need to say the right thing at the right time. Reading Aayat to the khawaarij about the sins that cause one to enter into the Hellfire will make them worse than what they already are. And in opposition, reading aayaat of mercy of Allaah to the Murji`ah would only keep them in their deviance. They would need to be reminded of the verses of the torment and punishment for sins. The one who is wise places the right information at the right time.
17 – It is desirable to pass the pleasing news to other Muslims.
The prophet salallaahu alayhi wa sallam did not want Muaadh to tell the people JUST YET .. If the people became firm in eemaan and were grounded in competing in good deeds then it is desirable to tell them.
18 – Fear of depending (of the people) upon the expansiveness of Allah’s mercy.
19 – The statement of one, who is asked on matters that are not known to him: “Allah and His Messenger know the best”.
Someone saying “I think” this is so etc… this is very dangerous because you are dealing with a great amaanah – the knowledge of Allaah’s Deen and what he is pleased with. This was during the life of the Prophet Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam but after his death we say “Allaahu `Aalam”
20 – It is correct to impart knowledge selectively to someone and not to others.
This is based on what they already know so as not to lead them to misconception about Islaam.
21 – The humility of Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) on riding a donkey with a companion behind.
He was on the best of character and the best example. He sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam was free from sin and our example for everything even in akhlaaq. He sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam did 3 things that you would not find an arrogant one or a ruler today doing (except the one that Allaah is merciful to):
- He was riding a donkey
- He had a rider behind him
- He spoke first.
22 – It is legitimate to have a second rider behind.
This is as long as it does not burden the animal
23 – Superiority of Mu’adh bin Jabal (May Allah be pleased with him)
24 – The great importance of this issue (of Tawheed).