Arabic – Morphology – Level One – Class 42 (detailed notes)

Thursday, June 28 2012

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

All the praise is to Allaah, we praise him and seek His Help and Forgiveness. May the peace and blessings and salawaat be upon His slave and messenger Muhammad, and upon his family and companions and all who follow them exactly until the Day of Judgment

We ask Allaah to grant a great reward to our Sister who provided these notes. 

NEW MATERIAL >>> Chapters 4 and 5

Chapter 4: فَعِلَ  –   يَفْعَلُ

Chapter 5: فَعِلَ  –    يَفْعِلُ

We said before that if the harakah of the two ayns (i.e. in the ماضي and the مضارع differ then it is أصل otherwise it is شاذ)

The best way to know Chapter 4 is to first know Chapter 5, because of two things:

  1. because the verbs in Chapter 5 are limited
  2. The best way to know what goes according to the basic principle is to know the odd exceptions (the principle above) this is because the odd exceptions are very limited and easy to count, and once you know the limited you will know the rest.

(order of chapters doesn’t matter –  in the course book,  these chapters are reversed)

What is the exception in Chapter 5? The exception is limited usage (limited verbs)

فَعِلَ Chapter 5 is two types:

  1. A type which come both odd, and with يَفْعَلُ
    • that means فَعِلَ could come both with يَفْعِلُ and also with يَفْعَلُ
    • Example:      حَسِبَ could come with يَفْعِلُ and also with يَفعَلُ
    • it could come with oddity where both harakah of the عين in the ماضي and the مضارع are the same.
    • It has a multiple usage between Chapter 5 and 4.

حَسِبَ  could come with يَحْسِبُ or it could be حَسِبَ – يَحْسَبُ

Chapter 5 concerns with the ماضي – فَعِلَ

فَعَلَ has 3 combinations for the مضارع

We are now turning to فَعِلَ

It has 2 combinations,

فَعِلَ  –   يَفْعَلُ

فَعِلَ  –    يَفْعِلُ

فَعِلَ as a combination with the مضارع can only be combined with one of the two (originally)

If فَعِلَ is combined with يَفْعَلُ this combination forms Chapter 4, which is the origin the أصل

But if فَعِل is combined with يَفْعِلُ then it is Chapter 5.

In Chapter 5 فَعِلُ – يَفْعِلُ(odd) there are verbs which could be used both odd (chapter 5) and أصل (Chapter 4)

Example:

حَسِبَ is placed in Chapter 5 because it comes odd.

Examples for Chapter 5:

حَسِبَ – يَحْسِبُ

Harakah of the عين in the ماضي and the مضارع is the same, so it is odd (شاذ)

حَسِبَ meaning “reckoned” – just as it is used with يحسِبُ it could also be used with يَحسَبُ

Used originally as well as in oddity.

In chapter 5 there are two types:   one could be said in two ways (5, 4) and one which is only said odd.

ابن مالك In his لامية has combined mentioned all these verbs in beautiful verses of poetry.

A great Imaam of العربية and he is the author of the famous ألفية the poetry of thousand verses, in نحو – the نحو meant here is both نحو and morphology.

He has another short poetry which strictly talks about صرف which is called اللامية which we are referring to here.

It is called لامية because all the verses end in the لام.

اَلْحَـمْــدُ لِـلَّـهِ لاَ أَبْـغِــي بِهِ بَـدَلاَ                 حَمْـدًا يُبَـلِّـغُ مِـنْ رِضْـوَانِهِ الأَمَـلاَ
              وَبَعْدُ فَالْفِـعْـلُ مَـنْ يُحْـكِـمْ تَصَـرُّفَـهُ             يَـحُـزْ مِـنَ اللُّغَـةِ الأَبْـوَابَ وَالسُّـبُـلاَ
ابن مالك gathered all the verbs of this Chapter in verses of poetry:
    (انْعِمْ) (بَئِسْتَ) (يَئِسْتَ) (اوْلَهْ) (يَبِسْ) (وَهِلاَ)  وَجْهَانِ فِيهِ مِنِ (احْسِبْ) مَعْ (وَغِرْتَ) وَ(حِرْ
(وَرِمْ) (وَرِعْتَ) (وَمِقْتَ) مَعْ (وَفِقْتَ حُلاَ)          وَأَفْرِدِ الْكَسْرَ فِيمَا مِنْ (وَرِثْ) وَ(وَلِيْ

He said وجهان means two ways in the مضارع

نَعِمَ – يَنْعَمُ، يَنْعِمُ

يَبِسَ  –  يَيْبَسُ ،  يَيْبِسُ

Here he mentioned 13, the ones that only have the oddity are 20, so in all there are 33 verbs.

13 = dual usage

20 – odd usage

The point of taking Chapter 5 before Chapter 4:

if you know the 33 which belong to Chapter 5, once you know the oddity then you will know the rest belong to Chapter 4.

Q.  i have written 19-20 which are shaadh and 12-13 which are shaad and asli, is this due to a disagreement in 1 or 2 of the verbs?

A. Yes, some added one to the 19 becoming 20 and one to the 12 becoming 13.

Q. are there signs to know that a verb belongs to chapter 5?

A. No, there are no signs and there is no principle to this. Know the limited verbs and you will know the rest.

Q.  Are there signs to knowin g a verb is of chapter 4?

A. Yes, if it is not of Chapter 5, then it belongs to Chapter 4.

___________

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