Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.
The title of this class is:
التَّحلِيلُ الصَّرفِيُّ لِمُفرَدَاتِ سُورَةِ الفَاتِحَةِ
The Morphological Analysis of Sooratul Faatihah
مُفرَدَات (words) is the plural of مُفرَدَة (a single thing), here مفردات has the same meaning as كَلِمَات (words) which is the plural of كَلِمَة (word).
التَّحلِيل : Analysis
الصَّرفِي : Morphological
Here we are going to mention some of the verbs that could be taken from اسم الفاعل – اسم المفعول etc (we could go a bit deeper than at-Taariqiyah). The ustaadh isn’t using any book, but we are just analyzing the verbs of the soorah.
Al-isti`aadhah (the saying, a`uudhu billaahi minash-shaytaanir-rajeem) is not of Al-Faatihah, but because starting the reading
(القِرَاءَ) with it is waajib (وَاجِب) or mustahab (مُستَحَب). It is good to mention it, because whatever leads to a waajib is a waajib and whatever leads to a mustahab is a mustahab, that’s why talking about this is appropriate.
Analysing the first verb which is أَعُوذُ
- its origin was أَعْوُذُ so we say: أَصلُهُ: أَعْوُذُ
- Why was أَعْوُذُ changed into أَعُوذُ ? This is because the waaw is a heavy letter and the dhammah on the waaw is a heavy harakah (heavy on heavy) and as we know the Arabs seek lightness in speech. Because the letter before the waaw is vacant, we can move the dhammah on the waaw to the `ayn (its neighbor) so it became:
عَاذَ – يَعُوذُ – عَوذًا / ماض – مضارع – مصدر
- There are a lot of masaadir, but Ustaadh just mentions one.
Ustaadh mentioned that in this Analysis whether it is verses of the Quraan or a suraah or any other context we are going to use القَامُوسُ المُحِيطُ which means The comprehensive dictionary. And this dictionary goes according the last letter, as for example عَاذَ you search by الذال
أَعُوذُ is from the first chapter (فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ). This verb belongs to the first chapter, because every verb having a waaw as its ‘ayn belongs to this chapter.
عَاذَ is originally عَوَذَ so its ‘aynul-kalimah is a waaw and one of the Qiyaas of a verb belonging to this chapter is when `aynul kalimah is a waaw (originally).
عَاذَ (‘aadha): He sought refuge.
How did we get عُذتُ (‘udhtu/I sought refuge) ?
Step 1: We connect تُ : تاء الفاعل at the end of the verb and get: عَاذَتُ
Step 2: We silence the laamul kalimah and get: عَاذْتُ
Step 3: عَاْذْتُ , here we have إلتقاء الساكنين (the meeting of two sukoons) and that is not allowed. We look to the first saakin letter and see if it is one of the three letters (hurooful ‘illah), if it is one of them you look to if the preceding harakah is of its kind, if so you can drop this harful ‘illah. In this case the first saakin letter is an Alif (one of huroof al ‘illah) and the preceding harakah is a fathah (عَ) which is of its kind, so we drop the alif and get: عَذْتُ .
Step 4: Since the Alif has been dropped (remember alif is representing waaw which is the `Ayn of the word i.e. `a wa dha is on the scale of fa`a la)- we give the faa-ul kalimah the harakah that suits the waaw (the original letter) and the harakah that suits the waaw is dhammah. So we give faa-ul kalimah a dhammah and get: عُذتُ . This step is important because if we left the faaul kalimah with a fathah then we would not be able to determine what the dropped letter (the `aynul kalimah) was originally. For example, if we left the fathah in the 2 words بَعتُ – عَذتُ , we can’t tell what was the original letteer represented by the alif that was dropped. but when you give faa-ul kalimah the harakah (بِعتُ – عُذتُ) that suits the original letter (dhammah suits waaw and kasrah suits yaa), now we know the original `aynul-kalimah! Because the baa’ of بِعتُ has a kasrah we can tell that the dropped letter was originally a yaa’ (بَيَعَ) and for عُذتُ it was originally a waaw (عَوَذَ).
The conjugation of the verb عَاذَ – أَعُوذُ
فعل ماض فعل مضارع
أنا : عُذتُ أَعُوذُ
نَحنُ: عُذنَا نَعُوذُ
أنتَ: عُذتَ تَعُوذُ
أنتِ: عُذتِ تَعُوذِينَ
أنتمَا: عُذتُمَا تَعُوذَانِ
أنتُم: عُذتُم تَعُوذُونَ
أنتُنَّ: عُذتُنَّ تَعُذنَ
هُو: عَاذَ يَعُوذُ
هِي: عَاذّتْ تَعُوذُ
هُمَا: عَاذَا يَعُوذَانِ
هُما للمُؤنث: عَاذّتَا تَعُوذَانِ
هُم: عَاذُوا يَعُوذُونَ
هُنَّ: عُذنَ يَعُذنَ
The best book to fetch words from the Quraan is from a book called: المُعجَمُ المُفَهرَسُ its different than القَامُوسُ المُحِيطُ It is a dictionary where you can find all the words that can be found in the Quraan made by the later investigators Muhammed Fuaad ‘Abdulbaaqiy
Our teacher also told us the Arabic word for those orientalists, kuffaar who study our religion seeking to destroy it. It is المُستَشرِقِينَ
From all the 26 forms above, three of them are found in the Quraan. They are: عُذتُ – أَعُوذُ – يَعُوذُونَ
- عُذتُis found in two verses:
40:27 – وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُم مِّن كُلِّ مُتَكَبِّرٍ لَّا يُؤْمِنُ بِيَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ
44:20 – وَإِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُمْ أَن تَرْجُمُونِ
- أَعُوذُis found in seven aayaat:
وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُوا بَقَرَةً قَالُوا أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّـهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ – 2:67
قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَسْأَلَكَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَإِلَّا تَغْفِرْ لِي وَتَرْحَمْنِي أَكُن مِّنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ – 11:47
قَالَتْ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـٰنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيًّا – 19:18
وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ – 23:97
وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ – 23:98
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ – 113:1
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ – 114:1
- يَعُوذُنَis found in one aayah:
وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا – 72:6
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END of CLASS 26 – walhamdulillaah. If anyone finds any errors in these notes kindly post in the comments section below or send in an email to: email@example.com. Baarakallaahu feekum!