Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.
A review of class 25
(from Ramadhaan 1432) >>>
From the text (pg.7 [or pg 12 of the PDF]):
الشّيطانِ جرٌّ بِمنْ, عَلاَمَةُ جَرِّهِ كَسرَةُ النُّون
“Ash-shaytaani” is majroor because of ‘min’. And the sign of it being in the state of jar is the kasrah on the noon.
Q: Why is the noon majroor with a kasrah?
A: Because it is a singular noun (ismun mufrad) لِأَنَّهُ اسمٌ مُفرَدٌ
The signs of the singular nouns are:
– marfoo’ with a dammah – تُرفَعُ بِالضَّمَةِ
– mansoob with a fathah – تُنصَبُ بِالكَسرَةِ
– majroor with a kasrah – تُجَرُّ بِاكَسرَةِ
فَإن قِيلَ لَكَ لِمَ شُدِّدَتِ الشِّين, فَقُل أُدغِمَتْ فِيهَا اللاَّمُ, واللاّمُ تُدغَمُ فِي أَربَعَةَ عَشَرَ حَرفاً: فِي التاء والثاء والدال والذال والراء والزاي والسين والشين والصاد والضاد والظاء والظاء واللام والنون
If it is said to you, why was the sheen given a shaddah, then say in it the laam was merged (the laam of ash-shaytaan), and the laam is merged into 14 letters التاء والثاء والدال والذال والراء والزاي والسين والشين والصاد والضاد والظاء والظاء واللام والنون
Originally it is الْشَيطَان than the laam got merged into the sheen and it became الشَّيطَان . The laam is written but not pronounced.
When we merge the laam into one of those 14 letters it is not like the merging of two identical letters, rather the laam which is merged is because it has a sukoon and it is only merged in pronunciation, and the writing stays.
When merging the laam (in pronunciation not in writing) into one of those 14 letters we give that letter a shaddah.
وإِنَّمَا صَارَتِ اللاَّمُ تُدغَمُ فِي أَربَعَةَ عَشَرَ حَرفاً وَهِيَ نِصفُ حُرُوف المُعجَم لِأَنَّهَا أَوسَعُ الحُرُوفِ مَخرَجاً, وَهِيَ تَخرُجُ مِن حَافةِ اللِّسَانِ مِن أَدنَاهُ إِلَى مُنتَهَى طَرَفَ اللِّسَان وَفُوَيقَ الضَّاحِكِ والنَّابِ والرَّبَاعِيةِ والثَّنِيَةِ
The laam became merging into 14 letters, and they are half of the alphabetical letters, only because it (the laam) is the widest of the letters in the makhraj. It comes out from the edge (two edges the right and left) of the tongue from the farthest on till the very tip of the tongue.
مَخرَج : The place where the letter is pronounced
أدنى : The farthest to the back
منتهى : The farthest to the front
فُوَيقَ : slightly above
الضَّاحِكِ : The premolars (the first one)
النَّابِ: The Canine
الرَّبَاعِيَةِ: The Lateral incisor (Do not say “Ar-rubaa’iyyah”, rather say “Ar-rabaa’iyyah” – and this will come in the Book of Tawheed.)
الثَّنِيَة : The Central incisor
When you pronounce the laam, the tongue stretches from the first premolars and covers whatever is above (the canine, lateral and central incisor).
فَلَمَّا اتَّسَعَت فِي الفَمِ وَقَرُبَت مِنَ الحُرُوفِ أُدغِمَتْ فِيهَا.
When it (the laam) widened in the mouth and was close to the letters it was merged in them.
- when it covered a wide space it became close/near to a lot of letters (the 14 letters). They are sharing/being very close to the same makhraj. Obviously when it is wide it will be close to alot of letters.
- If you were to pronounce the laam before these 14 letters you would find it difficult to separate them. for example: saying Al-Shaytaan it is very difficult to pronounce.
فَاعرِف ذَلِكَ إن شَاءَ اللهُ تَعَالَى
So know that in shaa-a Laahu ta’aalaa
اِعرِف comes from عَرَفَ – يَعرِفُ its example is ضَرَبَ (muta’adin) which is used for the 2nd chapter فَعَلَ – يَفعِلُ
Continuing where we left last time>>>
حَافةُ اللِّسانِ طَرَفُهُ وَجَمعُها حِيَف
The edge of the tongue is its tip and the plural of it is ‘hiyaf’
- basically he is explain the word حافة ‘ the edge of the tongue is its edge’. And its plural is حِيَفٌ (hiyafun).
حدَّثَنِي بِذَلِكَ مُحَمَّد بن أبي هاشم عن ثعلب عن ابن الأعرابي
That was narrated to me by Muhammed the son of the father of Haashim from Tha’lab from the son of Al- A’raabiy.
- This is the Ummah of narration (isnaad). You will not find this in any other religion. They use a chain of narration even in Arabic science. And those mentioned are the ummah of the Arabic language going all the back down to the sahaabah. Tha’lab is very famous and known by answering with narrations.
فَإِن قِيلَ: لِمَ فُتِحَتِ النُّونُ فِي قَولِكَ مِنَ الشَّيطَانِ وَكُسِرَتِ النُّونُ فِي قَولِكَ عَنِ الشَّيطَانِ؟ فَالجَوابُ فِي ذَلِكَ أنَّ النُّونَ حُرِّكَت فِيهَا لاِلتِقاَءِ السَّاكِنَينِ
So if it is said to you: Why was the noon in you saying مِنَ الشيطان given a fathah and the noon in you saying عَنِ الشَّيطَانِ given a kasrah? So the answer regarding that, is that the noon is given a harakah in both (revering to min and ‘an) of them, because of the meeting of the two sukoons لالتقاء الساكنين
مِنْ is مَبنِي (mabnee: fixed to a certain harakah) مِنْ: مبني على السكون
And عَنْ is also مبني على السكون
(so how come we said عَنِ الشَّيطَانِ and مِنَ الشَّيطَانِ giving them another harakah and not a sukoon while it is fixed on the sukoon?)
Because of the meeting of two sukoons لالتِقاءُ السَّاكِنَينِ
مِنْ/ عَنْ الشَّيطانِ Here the sukoon is on the noon and on the sheen (or you could say on the laam)
The alif of الشَّيطَان and its likes is called aliful wasl, and if it is between letters it is dropped from pronunciation (as if it isn’t there).
And the laam is also dropped from pronunciation here, because it is merged into the Sheen, considering it to be one of the 14 letters into which the laam is merged.
غَيرَ أنَّهُمُ اختَارُوا الفَتحَ في مِنْ لاِنكِسَارِ المِيمِ, واختَارُوا الكَسرَ فِي عَنْ لاِنفِتَاحِ العَينِ
Except that they have chosen giving the fathah in مِن ,because the meem has a kasrah. And they have chosen giving the kasrah in عَنْ, because the ‘ayn has a fathah (the opposite of مِنْ)
فَأَمَّا قَولُهُم إِنِ اللهُ أَمكَنَنِي مِنْ فُلاَنٍ, فَإِنَّهُم كَسَرُوا النُّونَ مَعَ الهَمزَةِ لِقِلَّةِ استِعمَالِهِم إِيَّاهُ
As for their saying إِنِ اللهُ أمكنني من فلان ‘If Allaah made me get a hold of so and so (fulaan/a person)’. Than they have given the noon a kasrah with the hamzah, because of their limited usage of it.
Here إِنْ has the same resemblance as مِنْ (the letter before the saakin noon has a kasrah).
So how come here they didn’t give the noon a fathah as in مِنَ?
Because of limited usage- The Arabs tend to use lightness in speech to that what is used frequently.
Because ‘min’ is used often (excessive usage) they have chosen to give it a different harakah than the meem to lighten the speech
- Some examples of changing a word, because of frequent usage to get lightness in speech:
- بِسمِ الله was originally بِاسمِ (the alif got dropped)
- خَيرٌ originally أَخيَرُ (the hamzah go dropped)
- شَرٌّ was originally أَشَرُّ (the hamzah got dropped)
Like ابن مالك said:
وَرُبّما أغْناهُمُ خَيرٌ و شَر # عَنْ قَولِهِم أَخَيرُ مِنهُ و أشَر
إِنْ : if – مبني على السكون
As in Allaahs saying: إِنْ أَنتَ إِلاَّ نَذِيرٌ – 35:23
إن has different meanings, so we have to be careful by giving its meaning. إِنِ اللهُ أمكَنَنِي مِن فُلاَنٍ – Here الله (lafdhul jalaalah) is مُبتَدَأ (mubtada-)
إِنِ اللهُ When pronouncing the word Allaah you lighten the laam, because of it being preceded by a kasrah. And when it has a dammah or a fathah you make it heavy. As ابن الجزري said in his poem:
وَفَــــخِّــــمِ الِّـــلاَمِ مِـــنِ اسْــمِ اللهِ # عَــنْ فَـــتْــحٍ أوْ ضَــمٍّ كَــعَـــبْـــدُ اللهِ
Deepen the laam from the name of Allaah # After a fathah or a dammah such as ‘Abdul Laahi