بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.
The definitions of the signs of I’raab:
- Ar Raf’: is a certain grammatical change and its sign is the Dhammah and whatever was a substitute to it
- An Nasb: is a certain grammatical change and its sign is the Fathah and whatever was a substitute to it.
- Al-Jarr: is a certain grammatical change and its sign is the Kasrah and whatever was a substitute to it
- Al Jazm: is a certain grammatical change and its sign is the Sukoon and whatever was a substitute to it
From these definitions we take some pointers:
1) That there is an original sign for each change, and a substitute to it.
2) The original sign of Raf’ is the Dhammah
The original sign of Nasb is the Fathah
The original sign of Jarr is the Kasrah
The original sign of Jazm is the Sukoon
3) That each original sign has an alternative in certain cases – This means that although the Dhammah is the original sign of Raf’ in some cases that changes and there will be a substitute to the Dhammah – And the same goes to the rest
- For example: الحمدُ للهِ – Alhamdu, is marfoo’ (this is how the word is called when it is in the state of Raf’ )- and that what tells you that it is in the state of Raf’ is the Dhammah which is on its end.
- That what made it (Alhamdu) marfoo’ is it being in the beginning- الاِبتِدَاء – which is the Mental Factor -العامل المعنوي that causes it to be in the state of Raf’
- The Factor is what makes the changes (Raf’-Nasb-Jarr-Jazm) and their default signs are (Dhammah-Fathah-Kasrah-Sukoon)
- The Dhammah is not always the sign of Raf’, sometimes there are substitutes
- Another example which is: المُؤمِنُونَ والمُؤمِنَاتُ بَعضُهُم أَولِيَاءُ بَعض
The first word here المُؤمِنُون is an ism and the proof for that is that it has ال
– The Ism which comes in the beginning, what state of I’raab does it take? Raf’
– Why? Because it came in the beginning just like (Alhamdu)
– But is there a Dhammah at the end of المُؤمِنُونَ showing that it is Marfoo’ ? No, here there is an alternative and a substitute to the Dhammah, which is the Waaw.
- Some might say how come that the Waaw is the sign of Raf’ and it isn’t the end of the word- The noon was only placed as a sign for a meaning to indicate that it is an Ism -and not as a state of I’raab.
– The مفرد (singular) of مُؤمِنُونَ is مُؤمِنٌ – Here in Mu-minun there is tanween and the definition of tanween is: A silent noon that is pronounced but not written.
– So here it is pronounced like this مُؤمِنُنْ – If the noon is not written but pronounced- it is shown by the sign which is the doubling of the harakah (in this case the doubling of the Dhammah).
– A tanween can only be at the end of an Ism- If we want to make Mu-minun plural we add a Waaw مُؤمِنٌو – Here the tanween on the noon can’t stay because it is not at the end anymore it is in the middle- So we remove the tanween of the noon (by dropping one dhammah) مُؤمِنُو- Now that the tanween is gone the ism lost its strength (because the tanween is the sign of the strength of the ism). When the tanween is no longer there the sign that proves the strength of the ism isn’t there anymore.
– Because of that they brought the Noon (the silent noon of tanween) at the end of the word as a substitute of the tanween- مُؤمِنُونَ (Here they made up for the loss of that silent noon (tanween))
- The ism is the strongest type of Kalaam (stronger than the Fi’l and the Harf)- The tanween proves its strength.
- The Dhammah can be found as a sign of Raf’ in Ismun mufrad (singular noun)- And مُؤمِنُون is a plural noun not singular (it is a different kind of word). Because of its nature here the plural can’t have a dhammah at its end, there was a substitute to the dhammah in this case
- There are some cases where we drop the noon or the tanween – Which is the case of Idaafah (you add it to another noun) like when you say: مُؤمِنُو المَدِينَةِ
- The reason why the noon has a fathah in مُؤمِنُونَ and not a sukoon (it is originally saakin because it is an substitute of the silent noon)- is because we will have iltiqaa-us Saakinayn مُؤمِنُوْنْ – so we have to get rid of it- Here we can’t remove the waaw, because it will break its form (of the jam’)- So here the noon gets a harakah- It didn’t get the kasrah although it is the default state when you get two saakins (because of a reason that will be mentioned in shaa Allaah in advanced classes)- So it got a fathah.
Always remember, that you will be given in the near future the kind of words where the original signs of ‘Iraab take place- And you will also be given the kind of words where the substitutes will be found.
- Here we have learned that the singular noun (alismul mufrad) is a type where the original sign will be found- And we have also learned that we can find a substitute to the Dhammah in a certain kind of word which is the plural (jam’)
– This means that in every Ismun mufrad (singular noun) has the original sign as I’raab (dhammah, fathah, kasrah)
– And for the plural like مُؤمنون it has a substitute of the Dhammah which is the Waaw
- The first type of word where you can find the waaw as a substitute to the Dhammah is the plural (Jam’ul Mudhakkarus Saalim- it is a certain type of plural)
Ustaadh made a Chart to Sum it up for us – We can always refer back to THIS Table. And he will teach us respectively what is mentioned in the Table in different classes in shaa Allaah.
~END of DARS ~