The Morphological Analysis of Sooratul-Faatihah (Class 5 detailed notes)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.

Continuing with the conjugation of سَمَا – يَسمُو >>>

فعل ماض                    فعل مضارع

    أنا : سَمَوتُ                        أَسمُو

      نَحنُ: سَمَونَا                     نَسمُو

    أنتَ: سَمَوتَ                        تَسمُو

     أنتِ: سَمَوتِ                      تَسمِينَ

         أنتمَا: سَمَوتُمَا                   تَسمُوَانِ

         أنتُم: وَسَمَوتُم                   تَسمُونَ

          أنتُنَّ: سَمَوتُنَّ                   تَسمُونَ

          هُو: سَمَا                          يَسمُو

         هِي: سَمَتْ                          تَسمُو

        هُمَا: سَمَوَا                        يَسمُوَانِ

         هُما للمُؤنث: سَمَوَتَا             تَسمُوَانِ

         هُم: سَمَوا                          يَسمُونَ

       هُنَّ: سَمَونَ                           يَسمُونَ

  • An Example from the Quraan that refers back to the verb هُنَّ يَسمُونَ (by it being naaqis and connected to noonul inaathah):

وَإِن طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ إِلَّا أَن يَعْفُونَ أَوْ يَعْفُوَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ عُقْدَةُ النِّكَاحِ  وَأَن تَعْفُوا أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ وَلَا تَنسَوُا الْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ  إِنَّ اللَّـهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ- 2:237

And if you divorce them before you have touched (had a sexual relation with) them, and you have appointed unto them the Mahr (bridal money given by the husbands to his wife at the time of marriage), then pay half of that (Mahr), unless they (the women) agree to forego it, or he (the husband), in whose hands is the marriage tie, agrees to forego and give her full appointed Mahr. And to forego and give (her the full Mahr) is nearer to At-Taqwa (piety, right-eousness, etc.). And do not forget liberality between yourselves. Truly, Allah is All-Seer of what you do.
 

الْقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحًا فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعْنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَاتٍ بِزِينَةٍ  وَأَن يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُنَّ  وَاللَّـهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ – 24:60

 And as for women past child-bearing who do not expect wed-lock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.
 
  • Why are أنتم تَسمُونَ  and أنتُنَّ تَسمُونَ be the same? Because the first Waaw of yasmoona is an extra letter which is Waawul Jam’(it is dameerul Jam’- and it expresses the Doer) Here laamul kalimah is dropped تسمُو – و = تسمُ + (واو الحماعة) ون = تَسمُونَ- We dropped the waaw because of iltiqaa-us saakinayn تَسمُوْوْنَ – So we dropped the first waaw (which is Waawul jam’)
  • As for the second one (for hunna) it is the Waaw of the verb itself (Laamul kalimah).

تَسمُو +(نون الاناثة) ن = تَسمُونَ – Here we don’t drop the waaw (laamul kalimah), because there is no reason for it to be dropped (no iltiqaa-us Saakinayn)- The waaw is saakin and the noon has a fathah

  • أنتُم تَسمُونَ is on the scale of تَفعُونَ – Here we dropped laamul kalimah because it is also dropped in the verb Tasmoona.
  • أنتُنَّ تَسمُونَ is on the scale of تَفعُلنَ – As for here the waaw is laamul kalimah so we put it like that on the scale
  • That what is mentioned above is the same as for هُم يَسمُونَ and هُنَّ يَسمُونَ

Extra:

Someone said about Musaylimah alKadhaab (the liar)  in a poetry:

سَمَوتَ بِالمَجدِ يَا ابنَ الأَكرَمِينَ أبا # وَأنتَ غَيثُ الوَرَى لاَزِلتَ رَحمَانَا

You rose with glory as a Father Oh Son of the Noble # And you are the relieve of people from hardship you will always/remain be/being A Rahmaan  

So he was refuted by one of the poets (he is a Mu-meen), saying:

خُصِّصتَ بِالمَقتِ يا ابنَ الْأَخبَثِينَ أَبًا # وَأنتَ شَرُّ الْوَرَى لاَ زِلتَ شَيطَانًا

You where specified with Anger (of Allaah) Oh son of the fealty/wretched  # And you are the worst of people you will always remain a Shaytaan (devil)
  • سَمَوتَ  means you rose
  • ArRahmaan is a name that is only given to Allaah – Restricted to Him (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa)
  • غَيث is the relieve  (someone who got relieved from hardship)- That’s why they also call when the heavy rain which comes after a long period of drought is called alghayth- because it is a relieve from that hardship
  • الورى is النّاس (people)
  • لاَزِلتَ always remaining
  • The Arabs where known by refuting each other by poetry – That’s why there refutation comes very strong

الرَّحمَن/ الرَّحِيم >>>

رَحِمَ – يَرحَمُ

  • It is from رَحِمَ – يَرحَمُ – رَحمَةً – from Chapter 4 – فَعِلَ – يَفعَلُ
  • الرَّحمن – الرّحيم are from the same origin
  • It means was merciful to- That’s why we say: رَحِمَهُ اللهُ – May Allaah have mercy on him

Conjugation of رَحِمَ – يَرحَمُ >>>

فعل ماض                    فعل مضارع

        أنا : رَحِمتُ                    أرحَمُ

        نَحنُ: رَحِمنَا                   نَرحَمُ

         أنتَ: رَحِمتَ                    تَرحَمُ

     أنتِ: رَحِمتِ                    تَرحَمِينَ

      أنتمَا: رَحِمتُمَا                   تَرحَمَانِ

     أنتُم: رَحِمتُم                     تَرحَمُونَ

         أنتُنَّ: رَحِمتُنَّ                   تَرحَمنَ

          هُو: رَحِمَ                        يَرحَمُ

         هِي: رَحِمَتْ                     تَرحَمُ

      هُمَا: رَحِمَا                     يَرحَمَانِ

       هُما للمُؤنث: رَحِمَتَا          تَرحَمَانِ

      هُم: رَحِمُوا                     يَرحَمُونَ

        هُنَّ: رَحِمنَ                      يَرحَمنَ

The forms out of the 26 that are found in the Quraan are:
  • رَحَمنَا

وَلَوْ رَحِمْنَاهُمْ وَكَشَفْنَا مَا بِهِم مِّن ضُرٍّ لَّلَجُّوا فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ- 23:75

And though We had mercy on them and removed the distress which is on them, still they would obstinately persist in their transgression, wandering blindly.

رَحِمنَاهُم – We had mercy on them

  • رَحِمتَ

وَقِهِمُ السَّيِّئَاتِ  وَمَن تَقِ السَّيِّئَاتِ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمْتَهُ  وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ -40:7

Those (angels) who bear the Throne (of Allah) and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah) (saying): “Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent and follow Your Way, and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire!

رَحِمتَه – You had mercy on him

  • رَحِمَ

قَالَ سَآوِي إِلَىٰ جَبَلٍ يَعْصِمُنِي مِنَ الْمَاءِ  قَالَ لَا عَاصِمَ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّـهِ إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ  وَحَالَ بَيْنَهُمَا الْمَوْجُ فَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُغْرَقِينَ- 11:43

The son replied: “I will betake myself to a mountain, it will save me from the water.” Nuh (Noah) said: “This day there is no saviour from the Decree of Allah except him on whom He has mercy.” And a wave came in between them, so he (the son) was among the drowned.

وَمَا أُبَرِّئُ نَفْسِي  إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي  إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ – 12:35

“And I free not myself (from the blame). Verily, the (human) self is inclined to evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy (upon whom He wills). Verily, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ اللَّـهُ  إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ – 44:42

Except him on whom Allah has Mercy. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَهْلَكَنِيَ اللَّـهُ وَمَن مَّعِيَ أَوْ رَحِمَنَا فَمَن يُجِيرُ الْكَافِرِينَ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ – 67:28

Say (O Muhammad): “Tell me! If Allah destroys me, and those with me, or He bestows His Mercy on us, – who can save the disbelievers from a painful torment?”

رَحِمَنَا – He had mercy on us (He was merciful to us)

مَّن يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ  وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ – 6:16

Who is averted from (such a torment) on that Day, (Allah) has surely been Merciful to him. And that would be the obvious success.

رَحِمَهُ – he had mercy on him

  • تَرحَمُ

قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ- 7:23

They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.”

تَرحَمْنَا – The reason why the meem has no dhammah (Raf’)- is because it is in a state of Jazm -so it got a sukoon as its sign- this is because of the ‘aamil إن

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَسْأَلَكَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِهِ عِلْمٌ  وَإِلَّا تَغْفِرْ لِي وَتَرْحَمْنِي أَكُن مِّنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ – 11:47

Nuh (Noah) said: “O my Lord! I seek refuge with You from asking You that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have Mercy on me, I would indeed be one of the losers.”
  • يَرحَمُ

يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَرْحَمُ مَن يَشَاءُ  وَإِلَيْهِ تُقْلَبُونَ- 29:21

And you cannot escape in the earth or in the heaven. And besides Allah you have neither any Wali (Protector or Guardian) nor any Helper.
 

رَّبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ  إِن يَشَأْ يَرْحَمْكُمْ أَوْ إِن يَشَأْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا – 17:54

Your Lord knows you best, if He will, He will have mercy on you, or if He will, He will punish you. And We have not sent you (O Muhammad ) as a guardian over them.

عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَن يَرْحَمَكُمْ  وَإِنْ عُدتُّمْ عُدْنَا  وَجَعَلْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ حَصِيرًا- 17:8

[And We said in the Taurat (Torah)]: “It may be that your Lord may show mercy unto you, but if you return (to sins), We shall return (to Our Punishment). And We have made Hell a prison for the disbelievers.

يَرحَمَكُم – The reason why the meem has no dhammah (Raf’)- is because it is in a state of Nasb -so it got a fathah as its sign- and this is because of the ‘aamil أن

يَرحَمَكُم – He has mercy on all of you

رَّبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ  إِن يَشَأْ يَرْحَمْكُمْ أَوْ إِن يَشَأْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا- 17:54

Your Lord knows you best, if He will, He will have mercy on you, or if He will, He will punish you. And We have not sent you (O Muhammad ) as a guardian over them.

يَرحَمْكُم – Here you see that the meem has a sukoon and no Dhammah (Raf’)- and this is because it is in a state of Jazm (it is majzoom), and that what made it majzoom is the ‘aamil إن (this harf makes two mudaari’s majzoom )

وَلَمَّا سُقِطَ فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ وَرَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ ضَلُّوا قَالُوا لَئِن لَّمْ يَرْحَمْنَا رَبُّنَا وَيَغْفِرْ لَنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ- 7:149

And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they (repented and) said: “If our Lord have not mercy upon us and forgive us, we shall certainly be of the losers.”

يَرحَمْنَا – Here the meem has also a sukoon and no Dhammah (Raf’)- and this is because it is in a state of Jazm (it is majzoom), and that what made it majzoom is the ‘aamil لم (this harf makes two mudaari’s majzoom )

الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ  يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ  أُولَـٰئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللَّـهُ  إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ- 9:71

 The believers, men and women, are Auliya’ (helpers, supporters, friends, protectors) of one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma’ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do), and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e. polytheism and disbelief of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden); they perform As-Salat(Iqamat-as-Salat) and give the Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah will have His Mercy on them. Surely Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

–          So as you can notice we have- يرحَمْنَا – يَرحَمُهُم  يَرحَمُ – يَرحَمَكُم – يَرحَمْكُم – and they all differ in I’raab – We have Marfoo’, Mansoob and Majzoom

الحمدُ >>>

حَمِدَ – يَحمَدُ

  • It is from حَمِدَ – يَحمَدُ – حَمدًا  – Alhamdu is a masdar (the praising)
  • From Chapter 4فَعِلَ -يَفعَلُ – مِن بَابِ عَلِمَ (by you saying it is from baab ‘alima, you will know it is Muta’addin)

Conjugation of حَمِدَ – يَحمَدُ >>>

فعل ماض                    فعل مضارع

       أنا : حَمِدتُ                    أحمَدُ

       نَحنُ: حَمِدنَا                    نَحمَدُ

       أنتَ: حَمِدتَ                     تَحمَدُ

    أنتِ: حَمِدتِ                     تَحمَدِينَ

     أنتمَا: حَمِدتُمَا                   تَحمَدَانِ

    أنتُم: حَمِدتُم                      تَحمَدُونَ

      أنتُنَّ: حَمِدتُنَّ                      تَحمَدنَ

        هُو: حَمِدَ                           يَحمَدُ

         هِي: حَمِدَتْ                         تَحمَدُ

       هُمَا: حَمِدَا                          يَحمَدَانِ

        هُما للمُؤنث: حَمِدَتَا                تَحمَدَانِ

        هُم: حَمِدُوا                          يَحمَدُونَ

          هُنَّ: حَمِدنَ                           يَحمَدنَ

~~~~      

Ustaadh gave the students homework to conjugate the next verbs:

مَلَكَ – يَملِكُ , رَبَّ – يَرُبُّ , دَانَ- يَدِينُ

~~~ END of DARS  ~~~  
Walhamdulillaah wassalaatu wassalaam ‘Alaa Rasoolillaah

2 thoughts on “The Morphological Analysis of Sooratul-Faatihah (Class 5 detailed notes)

  1. Siddeeqa August 8, 2012 at 6:19 am Reply

    Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh!

    Dear Sisters, don’t you think the last screenshot is incomplete? It doesn’t contain the third set of verbs given for the home-work. One might think there were only two verbs given.

    BaarakAllaahu feekum for your hard work and efforts!

    • sarf4sisters August 8, 2012 at 7:24 am Reply

      Walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh]
      Yes it is missing the third assignment which is: Daana Yadeenu
      jazaakillaahu khayran Sister, Inshaa’Allaah we will try to adjust ASAP!

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