Establishing the Principles: Fiqh & Ettiquettes – Book 1- Class 1

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

 

Introduction >>>

The book we are going to take is called مَتنُ الأخضَرِي (Matnul Akhdariyy) – And this book has been made into a Poetry.

  • The book (Normal text) contains an introduction, praising Allah and giving salat and salaam on the Prophet salalahu alaiyhi wasalam. It is mentioning that the first and the priority in seeking knowledge is learning about your ‘Aqeedah (what has to do with your Creed and Belief). Then it mentions Repent and its conditions. Then it talks about many etiquettes in about 20 verses of Poetry before starting into Fiqh. And the rest of the Poetry speaks about Fiqh (Jurisprudence, purification and the Salaah on till Prostration out of forgetfulness (sujoodu sahw)). It consist exactly out of 277 verses of Poetry and it is called مَتنُ الأخضري

Brief Biography of the Author >>>

Our Author is called عَبدُ الرَّحمَن بنُ مُحَمَّد بنِ عَامِر الأَخضَري النَطيُوسِي المَغرِبِي المَالِكِي (Abdurahmaan ibnu Muhammad ibni ‘Aamir Al-Akhdariyy An-Natyoosiyy Al-Maghribiyy Al-Maalikiy (the Morrocan, fiqh according to Maalikiy Madhab). He was born in 918 and he has many popular Books to Scholars (People of knowledge) and students of knowledge:

–          Al Jawhar Al Maknoon- Balaaghah (will take in balagha, advanced courses.)

–          As-Sullam Al Munawraq – logical facts

–          Matn Al-Akhdhari (in reference to his name)

  • The Author which is mentioned is of the book itself (the normal text)

As for the Poetry it belongs to عَبدُ اللهِ بنِ أحمَد بنِ الحَاج القَلاّوِي الشَّنقِيطِي (Abdullaah ibnu Ahmed ibnil Haajj Al-Qallaawiyy Ash-Shanqeetiyy). He Died 1208 ( 200 + years ago)

  • As-Shanqeetiyy made this Matn (text) of Al-Akhdariyy into a Poetry
  • It is known that Ash-Shanqeetiyy (is a tribe) are Mauritanians and it is a common thing of them that they turn Books into Poetry.
  • The people in General turn those kind of text into certain and particular Sciences into Poetry to make it easy for them to Memorize the knowledge (and the knowledge which stays and remains is that which is known by heart)

(Ustaadh asked the students which they would prefer to study the Normal text or the Poetry- And the majority chose for the Poetry- So he went by the Majority)

The Poetry >>>

Poetry has many patterns and the easiest pattern is that which is called رَجَز Rajaz – And this Poetry that we are going to study is on this pattern.

  • He started with بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم (Bismillaahi Rahmaani Raheem) ‘the basmala’
  • The proof of starting with the basmalah is firstly to follow the way of The Quraan and secondly The Sunnah, that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم started his writings with it
  • The skeleton of the pattern we will follow is using a single word 6 times (one verse), which is:

            مُستَفعِلُن مُستَفعِلُن مُستَفعِلُن             مُستَفعِلُن مُستَفعِلُن مُستَفعِلُن  (Mustaf’ilun Mustaf’ilun Mustaf’ilun       Mustaf’ilun Mustaf’ilun Mustaf’ilun)

  • Whatever rhymes with this pattern (takes this melody) is called arRajaz
  • The word مستفعلن doesn’t have any meaning it is just a certain scale to follow
  • When we are going to learn much vocabulary it is going to be easy for us in Shaa Allaah to turn it into this kind of Poetry (because it is easy to form)
  • The Poetry that we take in ‘Aqeedah (Creed) Class حائية ابن أبي داود has a different pattern (melody)- It doesn’t rhyme with this one – and when you try to use it on this pattern it doesn’t fit/go (out of tune)
The first 4 verses of the Poetry >>>

       بسم الله الرّحــــــــــــــــــــــــــــمن الرّحــــــــــــــــــــــــــيم     

     عَبدُ الإِلهِ الشَّنجِطِيُّ يَشتَـــــرِي            بِعِقدِهِ المَنظُومِ تِبرَ الأَخضَرِ  

     وَرُبَّ مَن عَقدِي اضْطرَارًا حَسَّنَهْ             لَعَلَّنِـــي أَنَالُ الاجرَ وَالزِّنَه   

      فَالحَمـــــــدُ لِلهِ مُرَبِّي العَالَمِين             ثُمَّ الصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ لِلأَمِين  

     سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ إِمَـــــــــــــــــــامِ             رُسُلِنَا وَالانبِيَا الخِتَــــــــــــامِ

 

‘Abdul ilaahi Shanjitiyyu yastariyy                     

Bi’iqdihil Mandhoomi tibral Akhdhariyy

Warubba man ‘aqdi dhraaran hassanah            

 La’allaneey anaalul ajra wazzinah

FalHamdu liLaahi murabbil ‘aalameen            

thumma Salaatu wassalaamu lilameen

Sayyidinaa Muhammedin imaaaami                    

Rusulinaa walanbiyal Khitaaaami      

عَبدُ الإِلهِ الشَّنجِطِيُّ يَشتَـــــرِي            بِعِقدِهِ المَنظُومِ تِبرَ الأَخضَرِ

 ‘Abdulilaah Ash-Shaqeetiy buys            The Scattered Gold crumbs of Al-Akhdariyys with his Poetry
  • This verse means that Ash-Shanqeetiyy replaced the Book of Al-Akhdariyy with the poetic version of it (Turned the book into Poetry)
  • عبد الإله الشنجطي he is naming himself
  • الشنجيطي (Ash-Shanjeetiy) it is a slang way of saying الشنقيطي – and he turned it into slang to make it in tune with the Poetry
  • Poetry makes you sometimes break the rules to go with the pattern
  • What he means with that verse is that he replaced the normal text of Al-Akhadariyy’s with his poetry- And in this poetry he gave an example of him buying it (the text) with Gold crumbs
  • عبد الله is originally عبد الإله – The word الله is originated from the word الإله – Basically الله is a short way of saying الإله
  • يشتري means: He buys
  • بِعقدِه the ‘baa’ here means ‘exchanging’ – عِقد originally means a necklace, and just as a necklace is a chain of things the Poetry is a chain of words in a certain pattern. And عِقده here means: his Poetry
  • المنظوم means: The gathered together
  • تِبر is Gold crumbs (refined)- So with this example he gave the words (text) of Al-Akhdariyy as scattered gold- And this is without any doubts a praise to his text
  • الاخضري is the author of the text

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Transcribed by: Ukht Zahra

From some of the Questions >>>
  • The learning of Poetry is because when learning just a normal text we attend to forget it more than when learning a Poetry- Because the Poetry rhymes and this quality of rhyming makes it hard to forget. It is an agreed upon way by the people of knowledge that they turn those books into verses of Poetry to become easy to memorize the desired text. And this is not just in Fiqh it is in all Islamic sciences.
  • When learning the Poetry it will also rich your vocabulary (you will store the words and benefit from it greatly in the future in shaa Allaah- it’s like investing in your seeking of knowledge)
  •  منظوم can also mean: Poetry

Screen Shots>>>

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