Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Book 1- Class 3

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

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In previous classes we have explained  from the introduction the following:

  1. 1.       بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم   Bismillaahir rahmaanir raheem 
  2. 2.       وبه نستعين    Wa bihi nasta`een
  3. 3.       رب تمم بالخير    Rabbi tammim bil-khayr
  4. 4.          الحمد لله رب العامينAl-Hamdulillaahi Rabbil-`Aalameen

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Regarding the terminology

The terms which are used in general have more than one usage. 

  1. An original usage which is the linguistic usage.
    • linguistic usage is the meaning which the arabs used this term for.  For example:  the Arabs brought the word “shams” to describe that bright round shining thing in the sky.
  2. The originated usage which was an innovated usage that came after the original usage. 
    • The originated usages are three but in these sciences (Islamic sciences), we are concerned with two types of this (originated) usage
      • The Islaamic usage
      • The scientific usage

*Both are considered technical usages, (meaning: not linguistic). 

So a word had an original linguistic meaning but when the Qur’aan and Sunnah were revealed, the Islamic usage was originated.  Islamically, a word was used not for the original meaning it was used for linguistically.

Then after the first generation (the Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam and his companions), the scientific usage was originated – when they started writing down and compiling those Islamic sciences (grammar, principles of fiqh, principles of tafseer etc… the scholars needed terms to use for the specific meaning they wanted to explain to the seeker of knowledge.  So another usage was originated:  the scientific usage.  Sometimes they are the same: the scientific and Islamic usages are one.*

***Students must always keep this in mind – with every book that we are studying, the linguistic usage is general and the originated usage is specified from that general meaning.***

And with the example, the speech will become clearer

  • الصلاة    (As-salaah)  Because of those usages originating, this word no longer had one meaning, rather it had more than a linguistic meaning.  It had both a linguistic meaning and an Islamic meaning.
    • The original/linguistic meaning of As-Salaah is “invocating,” this is its general (not specified) meaning.  It can refer to any invocation. 
    • But when Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’Aalaa brought this word (in the Qur’aan) it then had an originated Islaamic meaning  – a specified meaning – a certain invocating which is the praying- the prayer we do – it is a specific du`aa that we do and in a specific position.

Example: الصوم / الصيام As-Siyaam/As-sawm

  • It has more than one meaning, based on how the Arabs used it and how Allaah brought it in the Qur’aan.  When the Qur’aan was revealed the word Siyaam was used in a more specified way than its original usage in the Arabic language.
  • Linguistically الصيام means “abstaining.” Abstaining from anything. This is the general meaning.  An example is in 19/26: فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا ۖ فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيًّا
    • In this aayah:  the abstaining was from speaking to people.  This word was used in the linguistic meaning.
  • We know and use the word “Sawm/As-Siyaam” as the Rasool Sallallaahu `alayhi wassallam told us which is to mean “Fasting”- abstaining from eating.  Islaamically  الصيام means abstaining at a certain time, from a certain thing, by a certain person. – it is specified.

Example:  the word فقه has 3 meanings: (each meaning goes back to the linguistic meaning)

  1. 1.       Linguistically it is understanding – any kind of understanding. 
  2. 2.       Islamically it is understanding the laws of Allaah whether related to belief or practice
  3. 3.       Scientifically/Technically it is understanding the rules of Allaah which are related only to practice.

For example; if you went to an Arab and said “faqhinee” (Make me understand), this Arab would reply you with: “Make you understand what?”  He will take it back to the original linguistic meaning.  But if you went to a scholar and said:  “Faqhinee”, he will understand it from another angle-because he uses that word to express a certain understanding –  an understanding of something specific which is the science he teaches- the Science of Fiqh – of understanding the rulings of Salah, of Zakah, of Siyaam etc…to something specific to his field.   When the Prophet speaks of this word “fiqh”- he refers to knowing the laws of Allaah – (the Islaamic meaning).

 ~~~

In these classes we will be given terms both from their linguistic meaning and technical (scientific) meaning, although it is the technical meaning we are looking for – in order to properly understand the technical meaning, we have to first understand the linguistic one.  This because we cannot understand  something that was originated from something else unless we know from where it originated in the first place.  Also, in cases that require it, our teacher will give us the Islaamic meaning as well. 

THE TEXT >>>

وَالصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ عَلئ سَيِّدِ  الخَلْقِ مُحَمَّدٍ, وَ آلِهِ, وَأَصْحَابِهِ أَجْمَعِينَ  

And the Salaat and salaam be upon the master/leader of the creation, Muhammad and his house of kin and comapnions, all of them.

  • الصَّلاةُ (as-Salaah) linguistically means: “the Invocation” – any invocation.  But it has two Islaamic meanings.  Islaamically it means asking Allaah to praise the one we send the Salaah to among His angels. (The daleel for this is what Abu `Aaliyah said in Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree:  The salaat from Allaah is His praising of His slave in front of His angels.)   

*Everything here is based on evidence*

  • السَّلامُ (as-Salaam) linguistically means one of three things and whatever of these meanings can be applied, we apply it (due to the richness of meanings of words in this language):
  1. Salutations – When we say it, we are asking Allaah to send the salutations to His Prophet – sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam.
  2. Safety – When we say it we are asking Allaah to keep the Prophet safe – and after his (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) death. For example, on Yawmil-Qiyaamah the messengers will say:   اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ  “O Allaah Sallim Sallim!”
  3. Freeing from imperfection- We ask Allaah to free him and his followers and the religion he came with free from any defects.

In the next class we will complete the explanation of this introduction and then get into the topic: SARF –  morphology inshaa’Allaah.

FROM THE QUESTIONS >>>

  •  Every word has a linguistic meaning, but not every word has a technical- scientific or Islamic meaning.
  • At the end of Salah we are sending salaam to every pious person
  • Both the Islamic and scientific meanings are specific meanings
  • Originated meaning  is “istilaahi meaning (technical)” or  …(haadith-originated)
  • If we are speaking on a general Islamic level we use the islaamic meaning –  if speaking on a  scientific level we use the scientific/technical meaning.

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm  Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

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5 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Book 1- Class 3

  1. Abu Noah February 11, 2013 at 5:32 am Reply

    Assalamalaikum sisters. I have pdf of all the classes.Let me know where to mail it to you so that you can put it up online.

    • sarf4sisters February 12, 2013 at 10:51 am Reply

      walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh

      JAzaakallaahu khayran for your initiative. we have sent an email to your account associated with this message – you may forward from there- Kindly consider adding the final classes of level one (should be after class 51 Inshaa’Allaah) to complete the PDF. Baarakallaahu feekum.

  2. Zohra Al Fransiyyah February 16, 2013 at 1:16 pm Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    BarakAllahou fikoum!

  3. Eliyas February 20, 2013 at 2:36 am Reply

    is that O! Allah sallim Sallim or sallam sallam? Pls clarify I think it is sallim which is amr from baab tafeel.

    • sarf4sisters February 20, 2013 at 9:25 am Reply

      As-salaamu `alaykum

      Yes what you have said is correct, it is an amr from baabut-taf`eel and it should read “sallim, sallim” (اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ). The correction has been applied, jazaakumullaahu khayraa.

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