Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 5

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

 

Small Review >>>

(Ustaadh asked the students some questions regarding the previous class):

Q: Is there a difference between Sarf and Tasreef?

A: No

Q: What it Tasreef linguistically?

A: Changing

Q: What kind of Changing:

A: Any kind of Changing

Q: Technically what kind of changing is it?

A: Changing the Masdar (verbal noun)

Q: Changing it to what?

A: Changing it into different forms

Q: What is the reason for the changing of different forms?

A: In order to express different meanings

Q: Could those meanings be expressed by other than their specific forms?

A: No, they can only be expressed except through their certain forms

Notes >>>

تَقسِيمُ الفِعل

Taqseemul fi’l

The types of Fi’l
  • Here we are going to take the types of verbs Morphologically and not Grammatically
  • If you studied a bit of Grammar you will know that the parting of the Fi’l (verb) is of three types- But here he is going to speak about the parting of the Fi’l from a Morphological aspect.
  • He will mention that the Fi’l can be either a three letter verbs or a four letter verbs and each one of them is either free of any extra letters or containing extra letters etc..

(Before we will move on with the text ustaadh wants to give us some beneficial pointers regarding what we are going to study in shaa Allaah)

The types of words which are the center of our study are two:

1)      Ism اسم (Noun)

2)      Fi’l فعل  (Verb)

The difference between the Ism and the Fi’l:

  • The Ism points out only one thing, which is the Meaning
  • The Fi’l points out two things: The Meaning and the Certain Time that meaning took place (past, present or future)
  • Examples:

–          The word أخ (Akh/brother)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘brother’ (Ism, because it only points out one single meaning)

–          The word أُخت (Ukht/sister)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘sister’ (Ism)

–          The word ضَربٌ (Dharb/hitting)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘hitting (we took this word in the previous class as an example for the Masdar) (Ism)

–          The word ضَرَبَ (Dharaba/he hit)- points out two things: The Meaning and that it took place in the Past Time (Fi’l, because it points out two things: The Meaning and Certain Time)

Q: Does the word Dharaba point out to you the meaning of ‘hitting’?

A: Yes

Q: Does it give you another benefit besides it pointing out the Meaning and what if so what benefit did it give you?

A: Yes, the Time

–          The word شمس (Shams/sun)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘sun’ (Ism)

–          The word عِلم (‘ilm/knowledge)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘knowledge’ (Ism)

–          The word تَوحِيد (Tawheed/Oneness)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘Oneness’ (Ism)

–          The word العِبادَة (Al-‘ibaadah/The Worship)- points out only one thing which is the Meaning ‘the worship’ (Ism)

  • Ustaadh mentioned before about بسم الله and that there is a hidden word in this sentence (which is the verb)- With the Fi’l ضَرَبَ there is also a hidden word which is هو (huwa/he)- And what explains the doer is the word هو and not ضرب , so that’s why it doesn’t point out the Doer. So it as a word points out to only two things: the Meaning (hitting) and the Time it took place in (past tense).
  • It doesn’t  matter what the meaning is the only thing that matters is any word that give you a single meaning is an Ism
  • And that what is mentioned is a brief idea of the differences between the two (Ism and Fi’l)

 

The Harakaat and the Sukoon  الحَرَكَات و السكون >>>

Before the Arabs didn’t need any Signs on the letters, because everyone was speaking Arabic. But later we needed those signs, and because it wasn’t used before they didn’t had any names to give those signs. Now that these Signs are used the Scholars had to give them a name to indicate the pronunciation of it when placing it on the letters. There are only three types of vowels in Sarf and Nahw, and this is how they came up with it:

ضَمَّة (Dhammah):

  • ضَم (Dhamm), linguistically means: Joining/Putting something together.

The sound we make when pronouncing the first letter of the word أُخِذَ (Ukhidha) is ‘U’ and they wanted to search for a Name to call these signs which indicate the movement/sound you make when pronouncing it. So they said this sound is produced when one joins/puts his lips together in a circle so we want to use a word that expresses the meaning of ‘ joining together’, which is in Arabic ضَم – And ‘a single joining together’ is called ضَمَّة (Dhammah) so this is how they named it. And that because this sign expresses the sound which is produced by ‘a single joining together’ of the lips.

كَسرَة (Kasrah):

  • كَسر (Kasr), linguistically means: Breaking

The sound we make when pronouncing the second letter of the word أُخِذَ (Ukhidha) ‘I’ – The movement/sound you make when pronouncing it is produced when your mouth ‘breaks’ into a smile. So they searched for a word to use to express the meaning of ‘breaking’, which is in Arabic كَسر (Kasr)- And ‘a single breaking’ is called كَسرَة (Kasrah) so this is how they named it. And that because this sign expresses the sound which is produced by a single breaking smile of the lips.

فَتحَة (Fathah)

  • فَتح (Fath), linguistically means: Opening

The sound we make when pronoucing the third letter of the word أخِذَ (Ukhidha) ‘A’– The movement/sound you make when pronouncing it is produced when you open your mouth (vertically). So they searched for a word to use to express the meaning of opening, which is in Arabic فَتح (Fath) – And ‘a single opening’ is called فَتحَة (Fathah) so this is how they named it. And that because the sign expresses the sound which is produced by a single opening of the mouth.

  • نُوحِيهَا (NooHeeHaa) means: we reveal it
  • أُخِذَ (Ukhidha) means: Was taken
  • Just like when we took in the previous class of ‘one single hit’ ضَربَة we added the feminine sign ة  – the same we do with ضم when making it ‘a single joining together’ we add ة – ضَمَّة
  • كَسر (kasr/breaking) is the Verbal Noun (Masdar) – So a single breaking is كَسرَة (adding the feminine taa)

If a letter does not have a Dhammah nor a Kasrah nor a Fathah then it doesn’t  have anything it is silenced. And this silence is called Sukoon سُكُون

سُكُون (Sukoon)

  • سُكُون  linguistically means: Resting/Staying still/Not moving

They called it sukoon  because there is no movement of the lips, as for example: الْحَمْدُ لِلهِ رَبِّ الْعَلَمِين – ‘Al-Hamdu’, here the meem has none of the three signs (vowels)- It’s like a resting of that letter.

 

(When ustaadh doesn’t place a sign on a letter it means it is a sukoon)

 

  • نُوحِيهَا (NooHeeHaa) – The letter that comes after the noon  ن (with a dhammah) is the letter Waaw و, and when pronouncing both of these letters you say نُو (noo). That what produced the waaw is letting the dhammah loose. And this waaw originates from the dhammah
  • نُوحِيهَا (NooHeeHaa) – The letter that comes after the 7aa  ح(with a kasrah) is the letter yaa, and when pronouncing both of these letters you say حِي (hee). That what produced the yaa is letting the kasrah loose. And this yaa originates from the Kasrah
  • نُوحِيهَا (NooHeeHaa) – The letter that comes after the haa  هـ(with a Fathah) is the letter alif, and when pronouncing both of these letters you say ها (haa). That what produced the alif is letting the fathah loose. And this alif originates from the Fathah
  • These three which are the ضَمّة , فَتحَة , كَسرَة are called حَرَكَات (Harakaat) and it is the plural of حَرَكَة (Harakah)- The word حَركَة linguistically means: A ‘single’ movement- And they called it like that because when pronouncing those vowels you make movements with your lips.
  • سُكُون is a stillness and حَركة is a movement

(By us knowing the stories behind those terms it will benefit us a lot in understanding the Principles in shaa Allaah)

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

From some of the Questions >>>

  • تَشكِيل (tashkeel) is the act of placing those four signs on letters
  • In the fi’l ضَرَبَ the doer is expressed by the ضمير (dhameer)
  • There are certain scales were the Masdar comes in and we will take that later in shaa Allaah
  • The saakin Waaw originates from the Dhammah –  The saakin Yaa originates from the Kasrah-  The saakin Alif originates from the Fathah
  • Sometimes the Technical and the Islamic meaning can be the same and sometimes they can differ
  • The letters waaw, yaa and alif are madd letters but not always an a madd state

Screen Shot >>>

One thought on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 5

  1. Zohra Al Fransiyyah February 17, 2013 at 7:06 am Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    BarakAllahoufikoum !!

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