Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 6

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:


Explaining some of the terms and types of words:

The tilted dash above a letter is called a fathah.  Linguistically this means: “an opening.”  The relevance between the linguistic meaning and technical meaning is that the way to get that sound to which this tilted dash is a sign to is to open the mouth.

The ribbon looking sign above a letter is called a dhammah.  Linguistically it means: “a joining together.”  It was called this because the sound which this sign is given to is produced by the joining of the lips together.

The tilted dash below a letter is called a kasrah.  Linguistically it means “a breaking.”   It is called as such because the sound which this sign is given to is produced by breaking into a smile.

These three signs are called Harakaat. (sing: harakah).  Linguistically it means movements.  Technically it means the movement on a letter.

If the letter does not have one of those signs then it has a sukoon.

A term that includes all the signs that are placed on letters is called Tashkeel. Placing the signs on the letters is called  tashkeel.


ثُمَّ الْفِعْلُ … إمَّا: ثُلاثِيٌّ, وَإِمَّا رُبَاعِيٌّ.

Thummal-fi`lun…Immaa: Thulaathiyyun, wa immaa rubaa`iyyun

Furthermore, the f`il (the verb) … is either of three letters or of four letters

  • ·         إمَّا … وَإِمَّا  (immaa…wa immaa) means:  either ….or
  • ·          ثُلاثِيٌّ  (thulaathiyyun) means: of three (letters)
  • ·         رُبَاعِيٌّ.  (rubaa`iyyun) means: of four (letters)


  • ·         The least amount of letters you can find in a verb is three:

1.       ضَرَبَThree root letters:  Dhaad, raa’, baa’

2.       عَلِمَ  Three root letters: `Ayn, laam, meem

3.       قَبُرَ Three root letters:  Qaaf, baa’, raa’

(Concentrate on the forms of these verbs for now, not their meanings)

  • ·         Root letters of a verb are either three or four, this is what the author meant in his saying: ثُمَّ الْفِعْلُ … إمَّا: ثُلاثِيٌّ, وَإِمَّا رُبَاعِيٌّ.He means that the root letters of a verb can either be 3 or be 4.  No more.
  • ·         Examples of 4  letters :

1.       دَحْرَجَ four root letters: Daal,Haa, Raa, jeem

2.       زَلْزَلَ   four root letters: zaa, laam, zaa, laam

3.       وَسْوَسَ   four root letters: waaw, seen, waaw, seen

The verb that has only original letters (root letters) – no additional letters added to it – this verb will contain only three or four letters.

Example:  ضَرَبَ  (dharaba) has three original letters but ضَرَبَتْ, يَضْرِبُونَ, تَضْرِبَانِ  etc…  these are different forms of the root:  ض- ر- ب   They have extra letters added to the original three letters.

*Root letters are called “original letters” – in Arabic it is:  حُرُوف أَصْلِيَّة (Huruuful-Asliyyah).

*All letters which aren’t root letters, rather added to them are called “extra letters” – in Arabic it is: حروف زائدة  

Example of a four root letter verb with extra letters added:         دَحْرَجَ

دَحْرَجَ , دَحْرَجَتْ, دَحْرَجَا, يُدَحْرِجُونَ, أُدَحْرِجُ, نُدَحْرِجُ, تُدَحْرِجُ, يُدَحْرِجُ, يُدَحْرِجَانِ, دَحْرَجَة,

The letters that remained in all of the forms above are the four original root letter:  د – ح – ر – ج



وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا…إِمَّا: مُجَرَّدٌ, أَوْ مَزِيدٌ فِيهِ.  وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهَا…إِمَّا: سَالِمٌ, أَوْ غَيْرُ سَالِمٍ

Wa kullu waahidin minhumaa…Immaa: mujarradun, aw mazeedun feehi.  Wa kullu waahidin minhaa…immaa: saalimun, aw ghayru saalim.

And all of the two are either mujarrad or mazeedun feehi… (rest for next class)

  • ·         وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا  (wa kullu waahidin minhumaa) means: “and each one of  the two” (meaning either the three letter verb or the four letter verb)
  • ·         إِمَّا: مُجَرَّدٌ, أَوْ مَزِيدٌ فِيهِ.(immaa: Mujarradun aw mazeedun feehi)  Means: are either “mujarrad” or “mazeedun feehi”
    •  Mujarrad is a verb that is free from any extra letters. Taken from the verbal noun:  Tajreed” which means purifying or singling out or freeing from any extras”  Mujarrad Linguistically means being free from anything (like clothing)- “naked.”
    • Mazeedun feehi is a verb that has extra letters added to it.  Mazeedun means “Added to”  “feeh” means “in it.”  For short we say: “mazeed.”


Basically what the author is trying to tell us is that the verb is of four types:

1.       A three letter verb free from any extra letters (mujarrad)  ex: ضَرَبَ

2.       A three letter verb containing extra letters (mazeed) ex: يَضْرِبَا, تَضْرِبُونَ ,أَضْرِبُ,

3.       A four letter verb free from any extra letters (mujarrad) ex: دَحْرَجَ

4.       A four letter verb containing extra letters (mazeed) ex: يُدَحْرِجُ

Explanantion of Saalim and Ghayru Saalim in the next lesson.  (This will be new information for students who already completed sarf level one)



4 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 6

  1. Zohra Al Fransiyyah February 17, 2013 at 7:18 am Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    BarakAllahoufikoum akhawate filah..

  2. zaibabinthhashim February 18, 2013 at 5:52 am Reply

    Assalamuaaliakaum ukti fillah …

    Alhamdullilah the notes are excellent may Allah bestow his mercy on you all.. Ameen

    At the end of the notes ukti, isnt it supposed to be yadhriboo and not yidhribaa?
    wallahul mustaa’an plz correct me..

    barakallahu feekoum,
    zaiba binth shuraiz jawward hashim

    • sarf4sisters February 18, 2013 at 8:04 am Reply

      walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh

      jazaakillaahu khayran Ukhtee for pointing out the typo- very good maashaa’Allaah.

      It should be yadhribaa not yidhribaa with a fathah on the yaa and not a kasrah. The correction is made, baarakallaahu feeki.

      • zaiba binth hashim February 18, 2013 at 10:44 am

        barakallahu feeki yaa ukti .. hafidhakillah

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