Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 7

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

 

Small Review >>>

In General the verb is of two types and each one of those two is of two types (that makes four), And those four types are:

1)      A three letter which is Mujarrad  مجرد

2)      A three letter which is Mazeed مزيد

3)      A four letter which is Mujarrad مجرد

4)      A four letter which is Mazeed مزيد

  • Mujarrad: Free from any extra letters
  • Mazeed: Increased/added any extra letters

New Notes >>>

The Morphological scale المِيزَانُ الصَّرفِي

  • الميزان means: The scale
  • الصرفي means: The Morphological – It is a reference to صرف (Sarf) which means Morphology
  • نَحو means: Grammar –  نَحوِي (Nahwiyy) means: Grammatical – And this “yaa” is the “yaa” of reference like: هِندِي أمرِيكِيإمَارَاتي etc

This scale is a tool to weigh words.

  • “Weigh words” – Meaning, getting to know what the form of the word is upon

The form of a word includes four things:

1)      The Number of letters

2)      Their order

3)      The harakaat and sakanaat

4)      The extra and the original letters

  • Form, meaning: the appearance
  • From the scale we are going to identify the form the word is upon
  • As for example:

If you look at the form of the word ضَرَبَ 

1-      You can see that it has three letters (the Number of letters)-

2-      Its order – 1st  letter: “dhaad”- 2nd letter: “raa” – 3rd  letter: “baa”

3-      The harakaat and sakanaat – first letter has a fathah  ضَ –  second letter has a fathah رَ  – third letter has a fathah  بَ – and it has no sakanaat

4-      The extra and the original letters- 1st letter ض is an original letter- 2nd  letter ر is an original letter – 3rd  letter ب is an original letter (this word has no extra letters)

If you look at the form of the word يَضْرِبُونَ 

1-      You can see that it has six letters (the Number of letters)-

2-      Its order – 1st  letter: “yaa”- 2nd letter: “dhaad” – 3rd  letter: “raa” – 4th  letter: “baa” – 5th  letter: “waaw” – 6th letter: “noon”

3-      The harakaat and sakanaat – first letter has a fathah يَ  – second  letter has a sukoon  ضْ  – third letter has a kasrah  رِ – fourth  letter has a dhammah بُ    – fifth letter has a sukoon وْ* – sixth letter has a fathah نَ (this word has two sakanaat and four harakaat)

4-      The extra and the original letters- 1st letter ي is an extra letter- 2nd  letter ض is an original letter – 3rd  letter ر is an original letter- 4th letter ب is an original letter – 5 letter و is an extra letter- 6 letter ن  is an extra letter – (This word has three original letters ض- ر- ب and three extra letters ي- و- ن)*

  • Harakaat  حَرَكَات are the three signs Dhammah ضَمّة , Fathah فَتحَة and Kasrah كَسرَة – and the Sakanaat سَكَنَات is the Plural of Sukoon سُكُون
  • The harakaat and sakanaat , meaning in General the Tashkeel تَشكِيل
  • So when we say the form of a word we mean what it contains of its number of letters, its order, its harakaat and sakanaat and its extra and original letters
  • *The waaw at يَضرِبُونَ originates from prolonging the dhammah – and if it is a waaw that is prolonged from the dhammah then it definitely will have a sukoon
  • *The way to know the extra from the original letters of a word is to take it back to its original form and by that you will know its root letters (the root letters don’t change they are found in every form, whereas the extra letters do change)- In most cases the beginner does not know the root/original word (the masdar)

(In the beginning ustaadh will help us with the words step by step until we master the Principles and we will be able to do it ourselves in shaa Allaah- We will reach to a level where we will start producing our own words without any help from ustaadh, because of the Principles we have learned)

  • The way the form is explained in the examples mentioned above took long- That’s why there is a way to mention the form by just one short sentence, and this is done by the scale (The Morphological scale)

The scale is used to identify the forms

Refresher >>>

Q: What is the least amount of numbers you can find in a verb?

A: Three, and because of that, they made the scale originally upon three letters, because the less letters the word has the more this word is used

Q: Why?

A: Because there is a Major Principle which says: Arabs seek lightness in Speech

  • The lighter a word is the more it is used in speech
  • Here we are talking about the root letters – The verb without any extra letters is of two types: A three or a four lettered verb (root letters)- And the one which is used more are the three lettered verbs (Meaning there are more three letter verbs than four letter verbs)

Continuing >>>

Since a three letter verb is used mostly, the scale is to be upon three letters.

Q: If it is going to be three letters in the scale, which ones are they going to be?

A: They chose the ف ع ل (Faa, ‘Ayn and the Laam)

Q: Why, and how come those three letters in particular?

A: Because any verb can be expressed by the word “فعل” and it means “did”. And “did” could replace any other verb and be an alternative to it*

  • *Some examples, if you ask:

Did you give class today? You can answer by saying: Yes, I “gave” class, or : Yes, I “did”

Did you eat? Yes, I “ate”, or: Yes, I “did”

Did you drink? Yes, I “drank”, or: Yes, I “did”.

Did you say the truth? Yes, I “said” the truth, or: Yes, I “did”- etc

How to weigh?

  • You are going to place the 1st root letter of the word parallel to the 1st letter of the scale, which is the ف (faa)– Then the 2nd root letter of the word parallel to the 2nd letter of the scale, which is the ع (‘Ayn)– Then the  3rd  root letter of the word parallel to the  3rd   letter of the scale, which is the ل (Laam)
  • As for example the word ضَرَبَ (he hit, a verb):

1ste root letter ف <<< ض

2nd root letter ع <<< ر

3rd root letter ل <<< ب

(Next class ustaadh will explain further how to weigh a word to the scale in shaa Allaah)

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

One thought on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 7

  1. Zohra Al Fransiyyah February 17, 2013 at 7:47 am Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    BarakAllahoufikoum

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