Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 8

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

 

Small Review >>>

The Morphological scale المِيزَانُ الصَّرفِي

  • The scale contains three letters, because three letters is the least you can find a verb on and it is mostly used therefore the scale follows what is mostly used (Arabs seek lightness in speech)
  • The three letters that are used on the scale are: ف – ع – ل  (Faa- ‘Ayn and Laam) – The reason why they used these letters is because it has the meaning of “did” and every verb can be expressed by this word and replace any other verb and be an alternative to it.

New Notes >>>

Q:  Why a form of a Verb, doesn’t Sarf also include Nouns?

A: Yes, but when it was the verb which change the most, the scale followed the verb’s example

  • The Verb (fi’l) is the type of word that changes to many forms the most – That is why it is said: ‘That if you master the verbs and how they change you have mastered Sarf’ . You will have the tools the foundation which will gather for you all the Chapters of the Arabic Language.

How to weigh a word?

  • ضَرَبَ  is a three letter verb and it fits the scale exactly (three over three, no more no less)- So there is no problem in shaa Allaah when fitting a three letter verb into the scale.

The “ض” is placed on the “ف

The “ر” is placed on the “ع

The “ب” is placed on the “ل

The first letter that is going to be placed on the “ف” is the first root letter of the word

The second letter that is going to be placed on the “ع” is the second root letter of the word

The third letter that is going to be placed on the “ل” is the third root letter of the word

The first root letter which comes parallel to the “ف” is called فَاءُ الكَلِمَة (Faa-ul Kalimah)

The second root letter which comes parallel to the “ع” is called عَينُ الكَلِمَة  (‘Aynul Kalimah)

The third root letter which comes parallel to the “ل” is called لاَمُ الكَلِمَة  (Laamul Kalimah)

  • فَاءُ الكَلِمَة: ‘The Faa of the word’  and you can call it: ‘the Faa’- عَينُ الكَلِمَة : ‘The ‘Ayn of the word’ and you can call it: ‘the ‘Ayn’-  لاَمُ الكَلِمَة  : ‘The Laam of the word’ and you can call it: ‘the Laam’- And they are called like that because they get the name of the letter it is placed upon.

The scale is meant to identify the form of the word weighed and it includes the Numbers of the letters, the order, the harakaat and sakanaat, the extra and the original letters .

*Principle: Give the same Harakaat of the word weighed to the scale*

The word ضَرَبَ the first root letter has a fathah ضَ the ‘faa’ will get a fathah فَ , and it will be called فاء الكلمة

The second root letter has a fathah رَ the ‘ayn’ will get a fathah عَ , and it will be called عين الكلمة

The third root letter has a fathah بَ  the ‘laam’ will get a fathah لَ , and it will be called لام الكلمة

So when you weigh a word you say: ضَرَبَ is on the scale of فَعَلَ  and in Arabic we say: ضَرَبَ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ

Some other examples:

  • The word عَلِمَ :

The first root letter has a fathah عَ the ‘faa’ will get a fathah فَ , and it will be called فاء الكلمة

The second root letter has a kasrah لِ the ‘ayn’ will get a kasrah عِ  , and it will be called عين الكلمة

The third root letter has a fathah مَ  the ‘laam’ will get a fathah لَ , and it will be called  لام الكلمة

عَلِمَ is on the scale of فَعِلَ   – In Arabic: عَلِمَ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعِلَ

  • The word عَظُمَ :

The first root letter has a fathah عَ the ‘faa’ will get a fathah فَ , and it will be called فاء الكلمة

The second root letter has a dhammah  ظُ the ‘ayn’ will get a dhammah عُ, and it will be called عين الكلمة

The third root letter has a fathah مَ  the ‘laam’ will get a fathah لَ , and it will be called  لام الكلمة

عَظُمَ is on the scale of فَعُلَ – In Arabic: عظُمَ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعُلَ

  • وَزن means: scale
  • عَلِمَ means: knew

~~~~~~

  • The order of the letters can be changed, as for example:

أَيِسَ (Ayisa) means: Gave up

If we want to weigh this verb on to the scale the first thing that comes in mind is the Principle of placing each original letter parallel to the scale ‘ف ع ل’ , as we have learned:

The first letter of the verb is  أَ and it goes parallel to the first letter of the scale >>> ‘ فَ

The second letter of the verb is  يِ and it goes parallel to the second letter of the scale >>> ‘ عِ

The third letter of the verb is سَ and it goes parallel to the third letter of the scale >>> ‘ لَ

  • But if we know that يَأس (Ya-s) is the Masdar of the verb أَيِسَ, we will know that the order of the letters of the verb differ from its Masdar.

The first letter of the masdar is a  ” ي ” and the first letter of the fi’l  is a “ أ

The second letter of the masdar is a “ أ ” and the second letter of the fi’l is a ” ي

The third letter of the masdar and the fi’l are the same ” س

  • So here you can see that the order of the first two letters of the fi’l are different from its Masdar (its Origan).

After knowing this and we want to weigh the verb أَيِسَ to the scale. We know that the order of this verb is not the same as its Masdar يَأس. The first two letters of the verb should be switched to fit the order of its Masdar. So out of this we know that the first root (original) letter of this verb is the ‘ ي ’ and the second root letter is the ‘ أ ’ and the third root letter is the ‘ س ’.

We have to change the order of the scale just as the order of the Verb has been changed from its Masdar. This means that we switch the ‘ف’ with the ‘ع’ . And it will change in order from  ف ع ل to ع ف ل

عَ <<< أَ

فِ <<< يِ

لَ <<<  سَ

أَيِسَ عَلَى وَزنِ عَفِلَ  (Ayisa ‘alaa wazni ‘afila)- أَيِسَ is on the scale of عَفِلَ

  • You can say أَيِسَ or يَئِسَ they are the same
  • The root letters stay the same, but not necessary the order
  • The Verb follows the Masdar, because the Masdar is the origan
  • Most words are on their original order , so when you get a verb follow the same order it is upon (follow the principle) unless it is said to you otherwise.  And even if you made a mistake you still followed the correct methodology
  • When you read in the books of Tafseer (Arabic interpretations)- And you read that some of the scholars for example explained the word أَيِسَ– The first thing he is going to say is that أَيِسَ  is on the scale of عَفِلَ . The student who has learned Sarf will understand that there was a change of order. And by that he will be able to take it back to its Masdar to know the meaning.  Instead of the Scholar telling you that the first root letter of أَيِسَ is the ‘ي’ and the second root letter is ‘ أ ’ and the third letter is the ‘ س ’ , because it is taken from the Masdar يَأس – this is too long. So they developed the scale way to give you that long explanation in a few words.
  • As ‘Ali رضي الله عنه said: خَيرُ الكَلاَمِ مَا قَلَّ وَدَل  (Khayrul kalaami maa qalla wadal)-  ‘The best of speech is that which was short and gave the point’ – Little words great meanings
  • There is a reason for this changing of order (this will come later in shaa Allaah)

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

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4 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 8

  1. Abu Noah December 26, 2012 at 9:22 am Reply

    May Allah bless you all for this kind work you are doing for the sake of Allah. May Allah help us all learn and earn jannah. Aameen.

  2. Zohra Al Fransiyyah February 19, 2013 at 6:01 am Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    barakAllahoufikoum!

  3. sitaray February 27, 2013 at 4:07 am Reply

    Assalamualekum Dear sister(s),

    I was a bit confused as the two statements confuse and contradict one another.
    Here it is :
    a) But if we know that يَأس (Ya-s) is the Masdar of the verb أَيِسَ, we will know that the order of the letters of the verb differ from its Masdar.

    b) The first letter of the verb (fi’l) is a ” ي ” and the first letter of the Masdar is a “ أ “

    The second letter of the fi’l is a “ أ ” and the second letter of the Masdar is a ” ي “

    The third letter of the fi’l and the Masdar are the same ” س “

    the statement (a) says (Ya-s) is the masdar but u have changed it in (b) please explain y ?
    It should have been the first letter of the masdar is Ya not alif,
    the second letter of the madar is alif not ya.

    u have also changed the first letter of the verb as ya —-it should be alif, and
    second letter of the verb as alif —–it should be ya.

    or is it i got wrong ?
    please help me by clarifying the above.

    Jazaki Allahu khayr.

    • sarf4sisters February 27, 2013 at 8:10 am Reply

      بسم الله

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Baaraka Allaahu feeki wa jazaaki Allaahu khayran ukhtee for the notice…

      a) is correct and – b) should be switched so were it says fi’l should be masdar and were it says masdar should be fi’l – And this has been corrected in the notes, walhamdulilaah

      I hope this makes it clear in shaa Allaah..

      وبالله التوفيق

      Umm Sufyaan

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