Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 11

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

 

Small Review >>>

  • حُرُوفُ الزِّيَادَة : the addition of letters/ the extra letters.
  • Those extra letters are of three types and we mentioned two:

1)      An extra letter which is due to doubling a letter in the word weighed

2)      An extra letter that are gathered in the sentence سَأَلتُمُونِيهَا or أَمَانٌ وَتَسهِيلٌ

  • The second type doesn’t mean that those extra letters which are mentioned in the sentence سَأَلتُمُونِيهَا or أَمَانٌ وَتَسهِيلٌ  that they can’t be an original letter. But when it is an extra letter it has to be one of those letters.

ثُمَّ الفِعلُ .. إِمَّا: ثُلاّثِيٌّ , وَإِمَّا: رُبَاعِيٌّ. وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنهُمَا.. إِمَّا: مُجَرَّدٌ, أَو مِزِيدٌ فِيهِ

Then the فِعل is either:  ثُلاَثِي  (a three letter verb), or either رُبَاعِي  (a four letter verb). And each both of them is either  مُجَرَّد (free from any extra letters) or مَزِيد فيه added with an extra letter

New Notes >>>

وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنهَا .. إِمَّا: سَالِمٌ, أَو غَيرُ سَالِمٍ

And each of them… is either  سَالم (saalim) or غَير سالم(ghayr saalim)
  • Why did he say مِنها and not مِنهُمَا, like in the sentence before it وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنهُمَا “ ? مِنهُما”  each of both of them’  and ‘هما’ goes back to ثلاثي  and رباعي , but as for منها  ‘each of them’  ‘ها’ goes back to ثلاثي, رباعي, مجرد, مزيد

So we take from this that there are 8 types of verbs أَفعَال :

1)      فِعلٌ ثُلاَثِيٌّ مُجَرَّدٌ سَالِمٌ  (Fi’lun Thulaathiyyun Mujarradun Saalim)

2)      فِعلٌ ثُلاَثِيٌّ مُجَرَّدٌ غَيرُ سَالِم  (Fi’lun Thulaathiyyun Mujarradun Ghayru Saalim)

3)      فِعلٌ ثُلاَثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ سَالِمٌ (Fi’lun Thulaathiyyun Mazeedun Saalim)

4)      فِعلٌ ثُلاَثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ غَيرُ سَالِم  (Fi’lun Thulaathiyyun Mazeedun Ghayru Saalim)

5)      فِعلٌ رُبَاعِيٌّ مُجَرَّدٌ سَالِمٌ  (Fi’lun Rubaa’iyyun Mujarradun Saalim)

6)      فِعلٌ رُبَاعِيٌّ مُجَرَّدٌ غَيرُ سَالِم  (Fi’lun Rubaa’iyyun Mujarradun Ghayru Saalim)

7)      فِعلٌ رُبَاعِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ سَالِمٌ  (Fi’lun Rubaa’iyyun Mazeedun Saalim)

8)      فِعلٌ رُبَاعِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ غَيرُ سَالِم  (Fi’lun Rubaa’iyyun Mazeedun Ghayru Saalim)

Meaning:

1)      A three letter Verb (thulaathiyy) without extras (mujarrad) which is Saalim

2)      A three letter Verb (thulaatiyy) without extras (mujarrad) which is Ghayru Saalim

3)      A three letter Verb (thulaatiyy) with extras (mazeed) which is Saalim

4)      A three letter Verb (thulaatiyy) with extras (mazeed) which is Ghayru Saalim

5)      A four letter Verb (rubaa’iyy) without extras (mujarrad) which is Saalim

6)      A four letter Verb (rubaa’iyy) without extras (mujarrad) which is Ghayru Saalim

7)      A four letter Verb (rubaa’iyy) with extras (mazeed) which is Saalim

8)      A four letter Verb (rubaa’iyy) with extras (mazeed) which is Ghayru Saalim

What is سَالِم (saalim) and غَيرُ سَالِم (Ghayru saalim):

The linguistic meaning of سَالِم : Sound /well – Free/Safe/Secure from something

This thing which the Saalim is free of is one of three things:

1)      The و, ي, ا (waaw, yaa or the Alif)

2)      The أ (hamzah)

3)      Multiplicity

*Notice: When we say free from one of those three we mean one of its root/original letters حُرُوفٌ أَصلِيَّةٌ*

  • When you say mujarrad it means that it is free in the sense of nothing being attached to it (no extras to it), as for saalim it means that it is secure from something (things inside it)
  • غير سالم: Insecure/not free from something
  • Multiplicity means doubling the letter
  • Meaning that you can only call a verb Saalim when it free from having one of those three things mentioned above, in its root/original letters. And when it does have one of those things it is غير سالم(ghayru saalim)- Some examples:
    • وَأَدَ (wa-ada): this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a أ (hamzah) and a و (waaw) as its root letter- And here it has two of three things (the first and the second reason)
    • يَئِسَ (ya-isa) : this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a ي (yaa) and a أ (hamzah) as its root letter- And here it has two of three things (the first and the second reason)
    • قَالَ (qaala) : this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a ا (alif) as its root letter- And here it has one of three things (the first reason)
    • سَجَى (sajaa) : this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a ا (alif) as its root letter- And here it has one of three things (the first reason)
    • أخَذَ (akhadha) : this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a أ (hamzah) as its root letter- And here it has one of three things (the second reason)
    • سَألَ (sa-ala) : this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a أ (hamzah) as its root letter- And here it has one of three things (the second reason)
    • فَقَأَ (faqa-a) : this verb is غَيرُ سالم , because it has a أ (hamzah) as its root letter- And here it has one of three things (the second reason)
    • قَتَّلَ (qattala) : this verb is سالم , because its multiplicity is only on its ‘ayn and not on its laam
    • اِحمَرَّ (ihmarra) and its original letters are ح ,م ,ر : this verb is  سالم , because its multiplicity in only on its laam and not on its ‘ayn
  • اِحمَرَّ here the alif in the beginning is not an original letter but an extra letter.

(In the beginning of our study ustaadh will help us by mentioning the root letters and later we will be able to do it by ourselves in shaa Allaah.)

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

From some of the Questions >>>

  • Mujarrad meaning that it does not have extra letters whether it is Saalim or ghayr Saalim and it doesn’t include letters of أنيت . Mujarrad is wider then saalim, because the mujarrad is either a mujarrad which is Saalim or Ghayr Saalim
  • The reason why the  و,ي,ا  isn’t put together as one point with the أ hamzah is because they (the waaw,yaa and alif) have a certain term in this science
  • Multiplicity can also include the doubling of the letters that come twice in separate places and that is in a four letter verb (this will be explained in the future in shaa Allaah)

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3 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic –Sarf – Book 1- Class 11

  1. hania January 4, 2013 at 11:35 pm Reply

    assalamu alaikum

    where can i find the recording for this class please??

  2. sarf4sisters January 5, 2013 at 2:14 am Reply

    walaykumus salaam warahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh,

    Click the link below for the page that can take you to any past WIZIQ recording (to view) along with the detailed student notes from the S4S blog- Baarakallaahu feeki:

    http://establishingtheprinciples.wordpress.com/new-course-establishing-the-principles/morphology-level-one-sun-tues-thurs/

  3. zohraalfransiya February 20, 2013 at 10:32 am Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    BarakAllahoufikoum

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