Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 12

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

This class is full of important technical terms –  these will be very beneficial to the students in shaa’ Allaah

Review >>>

The فعل  (f`il-verb) is either ثلاثي (thulaathiyy- three letters*)  or رباعي   (rubaa`iyy –  four letters*)
[*TN- this is referring to all original letters]

Each of these is also either مجرّد  (Mujarrad – free from extra letters) or مزيدٌ فيه  (Mazeedun feehi –  containing extra letters).

And each of these is either سالم  (saalim) or غير سالم (ghayru saalim).

The verb called saalim is free  from three things:

FURTHER EXPLANATION >>>

  1. 1.       حروف العلة (Huruuful-`illah)  -The waaw, the alif and the yaa’   
    1. a.       Al-`illah means “changing from the normal state.  When something changes from its  normal state, this change is called “علة (`Illah)  The relevance of giving those letters this name is  that they change a lot.
    2. b.      The rest of the letters are called حروف صحيحة  (huruufun saheehah)
  2. 2.       الهمزة  -The hamzah
  3. 3.       Doubling or  multiplicity

So when a verb does not contain one of those three things *IN ITS ROOT LETTERS*  it is  called Saalim and a verb that HAS one or more of these three things listed above is called  غير سالم (ghayru saalim).

MORE TERMS for the VERBS that CONTAIN HURUUFUL-`ILLAH >>>

When we say “as-saalim”, this verb should not contain the alif waaw or yaa. Verbs that contain the alif waaw or yaa’ are ghayru saalim – these types of verbs come in one of three ways regarding the position of the huruuful-`illah:

  1. 1.       If the huruuful-`illah is in the beginning of the verb, the verb is called: مثال    (Mithaal) This is only for waaw or yaa because the alif (NOT THE HAMZAH) never comes in the beginning of a word.
  2. 2.       If the huruuful-`illah is  in the middle of the  verb, the  verb is called: أجوف (Ajwaaf)
  3. 3.       If the huruuful-`illah is  in the end of the  verb, the  verb is called:  ناقص  (Naaqis)

*If the verb doesn’t contain one of  Huruuful-`ilaah it is also called صحيح  (saheeh)  Saheeh means the verb is in its normal state –  it does not contain letters that cause the  verb to get out of its normal state.  (If a verb DOES contain huruuful-`illah is called معتل   (mu`tall).

Saheeh and saalim are not always the same – every saalim is a saheeh but not every saheeh is a saalim.

The verb which is called saalim is the verb free from three things (huruuful-`illah, hamzah or multiplicity)  but  the verb which is called saheeh is only free of  one  thing (hurruful-`illah)  So Saalim is more general than Saheeh. 

That is why we say *EVERY SAALIM IS A SAHEEH BUT NOT EVERY SAHEEH IS A SAALIM (because a saheeh could contain Hamzah and could contain multiplicity)*

A word which is free from multiplicity is not always Saheeh (maybe it has a huruuful illah like وَدَّ (Wadda).  We do not necessarily mean by multiplicity that it has an extra letter – what we mean by multiplicity (especially in the 3 letter verb –where all letters are original), is that the `aynul kalimah and laamul-kalimah are the same letter.  (teacher will explain later how this type of word is weighed). The term Saheeh is used when there is no Huruuful-‘illah in the verb. If there is no huruuful `illah, neither is there a hamzah or multiplicity, we say it saheeh and saalim.

So the verb that is saheeh contains only letters that are saheeh (huruufun saheehah)

  • ·         How to determine between an alif and hamzah?  Alif is just a stick or a yaa without the dots.  When this sign: ء  appears above a stick  it is called “hamzah”

Transcribers note:  ALIF (never comes in beginning of a word- it is a long vowel (lengthens the sound of the fathah) and doesn’t take a harakah.  It always comes after a letter that has fathah  it has two different forms:

ا ى

HAMZAH: It can take a harakah and come on the beginning middle or end of a word.  It has several different forms:

أ ؤ ئ ء إ  

When you see an alif at the beginning of a word then you should know that this is called “Hamzah al-wasl” or as teacher called it “Alif al-wasl.”  This letter is different from the two mentioned above. 

 

بالمثال يتضح المقال (by the example the information will be further clarified.)

SOME EXAMPLES >>>

وعد –  (wa`ada)  – ghayru saalim (- not  saalim, has a waaw) – not saheeh (has a a waaw) – it is mithaal (has huruuful-`illah [waaw] at the beginning of the verb)

أخذ –  (akhadha) –  ghayru saalim (not saalim, has a hamzah) – Saheeh (no huruuful-`illah [waaw,alif or yaa])

سأل –  (sa’ala) – ghayru saalim (not saalim has a hamzah) – Saheeh (no huruuful-`illah [waaw,alif or yaa])

عدّ –  (`adda) – ghayru saalim (not saalim has multiplicity) – Saheeh (no huruuful-`illah [waaw,alif or yaa])

مدّ –  (madda) – ghayru saalim (not saalim has multiplicity) – Saheeh (no huruuful-`illah [waaw,alif or yaa])

شدّ –  (shadda) – ghayru saalim (not saalim has multiplicity) – Saheeh (no huruuful-`illah [waaw,alif or yaa])

فقأ –  (faqa’a) –  ghayru saalim (not saalim has a hamzah) – Saheeh (no huruuful-`illah [waaw,alif or yaa])

يسر –  (yasara) – ghayru saalim (- not  saalim, has a yaa’) – not saheeh (has a a yaa’) – it is mithaal (has huruuful-`illah [yaa] at the beginning of the verb)

قتل –  (qatala)  – saalim ( nothing from the three cases are present  –  no harf illah  no hamzah and no multiplicity and saheeh (all the letters are saheehah and none are huruuful-`illah)

عبد –  (`abada) –  saalim ( nothing from the three cases are present  –  no harf illah  no hamzah and no multiplicity and saheeh (all the letters are saheehah and none are huruuful-`illah)

 

PRACTICING MITHAAL, AJWAF & NAAQIS >>>

قال –   Ajwaf (alif in middle)

دعا –  Naaqis (alif at end)

باع –  Ajwaf (alif in middle)

سجى –  Naaqis (alif at end)

وقف –  Mithaal (waaw at beginning)

قضى –  Naaqis (alif at end)

نأى –    Naaqis (alif at end)  * the middle letter is a hamzah because of the ء above the stick.    It is not saalim because of two reasons:  the hamzah and the harf `illah (the alif [ى] at the end)

 

~ END of DARS ~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

SCREEN SHOT:

6 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 12

  1. Abu Noah December 31, 2012 at 8:46 pm Reply

    Assalamalaikum. May Allah bless you for your great work and may He help us learn.. Didn’t the ustaad say the Ainul kalimah and faa’ul kalimah must be same for multiplicity?

  2. sarf4sisters January 1, 2013 at 4:25 am Reply

    walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh wa feekum baarakAllaah

    Afwan – I made a mistake – I believe you meant to say the ayn and laam (not faa- as it was written in the notes). so it should say the aynul kalimah and laamul kaalimah are the same letter ( EXAMPLES: مدّ شدّ قدّ دعّ ردّ madda, shadda, qadda, da“a, radda ) – the correction has been made Alhamdulillaah – jazaakallaahu khayraa

    Umm Omar

  3. Abu Noah January 2, 2013 at 10:32 am Reply

    i am glad i helped in a small way. May Allah increase us in knowledge..

  4. zohraalfransiya February 20, 2013 at 11:17 am Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    يسر – (yasara) – ghayru saalim (- not saalim, has a waaw) – not saheeh (has a a waaw) – it is mithaal (has huruuful-`illah [yaa] at the beginning of the verb)

    May ALlah preserve you.. i saw that it was said ( not salim, has a waww) there is no waww in yasara…
    Allahou ‘alam..
    BarakALlahoufikoum…

    • sarf4sisters February 20, 2013 at 5:35 pm Reply

      walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuhu Sister

      Jazaakillaahu khayran for pointing out the typo – it should readd (…has a yaa’). the notes have been updated alhamdulilaah

      wa feekum baarakallaah!

      • Zohra Al Fransiyyah February 21, 2013 at 1:12 pm

        Asalamou aleikoum
        Wa feeki oukhty …

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