بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
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- البِدعة ‘Al Bid’ah’ Linguistically means: something new (anything new)
- البِدعة ‘Al Bid’ah’ Religiously means: Something new in Religion
- There is a difference between تمسك بحبل الله (Hold on to the Rope of Allaah) and واتَّبع الهدى (and follow the Guidance)- And each of the two statements lead to the other. There is a benefit taken from the sequence of the sentence and from the words chosen. In the first sentence he uses the word تمسك and in the second اتبع , and the first one proofs that holding on to something prevents you from ‘falling’ and the second one proofs that staying upon one path prevents you from ‘going astray’
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وَلا تَكُ بِدعِيا لَعَلَّكَ تُفلِحُ
And don’t be innovative , that you may be successful
لاَ تَكُ بِدعِيا (don’t be innovative), this is in the meaning of ‘Holding on to the Rope of Allaah and Following His Guidance.’ Because when you do Hold on to the Quraan and follow the Kitaab and Sunnah that means that you are not an innovator. This is the perfection of speech, sometimes you mention an ‘order’ and its opposite ‘prohibition’ – this is also the way of the Quraan. Allaah gathers between ordering something and forbidding its opposite.
That what is said and what you understand from the statement itself (the speech) is called المَنطُوق (Al-Mantooq/the verbal)- And that what you understand not from the statement itself (the speech) but from what is concluded is called المَفهُوم (Al-Mafhoom/). This we will learn in Usoolul Fiqh in shaa Allaah
- As for example:
- There is an hadeeth that says: مَن يُرِدِ اللهُ بِه خَيرًا يُفَقِههُ فِي الدِّين (man yuridillaahu bihi khayran yufaqih’hu fiddeen), which means:’ Whoever Allaah wanted good for he will make him comprehend the Religion’. The benefit you take from the statement itself (the speech) is that ‘Whoever comprehended the Religion Allaah wanted good for’ (and this is the مَنطُوق). And the benefit you take from what is in opposition (meaning outside the text) from the statement (the speech) is ‘Whoever Allaah did not want good for He will not make him comprehend the Religion’ (and this is the مَفهُوم)
- Also from the first verse of the poetry it says: تَمَسَّك بِحَبلِ اللهِ (tamassak bihablillaahi), which means: ‘Hold on to the Rope of Allaah’ and in opposition it means (from outside the text): ‘Don’t hold on to anything else besides the Rope of Allaah’
- Another example: when someone tells you: ’be good’ , what you understand from what is said is ‘don’t be bad’ (which is its opposition)- and this meaning you took from what you understood and not from what you heard.
Sometimes a statement doesn’t have to mention its opposition (in the speech itself), it is enough to understand from it its opposition without it being mentioned in the text . But sometimes it is important/necessary to speak out/utter that what is understood in opposition, it is a style of emphasis.
In the verse تمسك بحبل الله واتبع الهدى # ولا تك بدعيا لعلك تفلح the author mentions from his saying ‘Hold on to the Rope of Allaah and follow the Guidance’ its opposition in that what follows , which is ‘And don’t be innovative that you may be successful’
Some examples from the Quraan:
اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ – 7:3
[Say (O Muhammad ) to these idolaters (pagan Arabs) of your folk:] Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord (the Qur’an and Prophet Muhammad’sSunnah), and follow not any Auliya’ (protectors and helpers, etc. who order you to associate partners in worship with Allah), besides Him (Allah). Little do you remember!
- In this Aayah Allaah سبحانه وتعالى spoke out what is meant in opposition from His saying ‘Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord’, which its opposition is ‘And follow not any Awliyaa-’
وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا – 4:36
Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor), the neighbour who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful;
- In this Aayah Allaah سبحانه وتعالى spoke out what is meant in opposition from His saying ‘Worship Allaah’, which its opposition is ‘And join none with Him in worship’
وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّـهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ – 3:103
And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. this Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah’s Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islamic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided.
- In this Aayah Allaah سبحانه وتعالى spoke out what is meant in opposition from His saying ‘And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allaah’, which its opposition is ‘And be not divided among yourselves’
So even in the style of speech the author is following the Book of Allaah. And this is where the principle originated from, which says: ‘The order/command to do something is a forbidding to do the opposite of it.’
لَعَلَّكَ تُفلِحُ (la’allaka tuflihu), which means: That you may be successful. So the means of success is following the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم – And the first verse the author mentioned has the same meaning which is mentioned in the first verses of (2:1/5) سورة البقرة (Sooratul Baqarah), as Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:
الم ﴿١﴾ ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿٢﴾ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ ﴿٣﴾ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ ﴿٤﴾ أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)].
Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them [i.e. give Zakat , spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allah’s Cause – Jihad, etc.].
And who believe in (the Qur’an and the Sunnah) which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.).
They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.
- That which has been sent down to the Prophet is not only the Quraan but it is also the Sunnah. And the prophet was many times approached and asked about something and he would wait on till the revelation came down to him from our Lord. So everything that the Prophet says in matters of Religion is a revelation from Allaah. Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said in [53:3]:
(وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ ﴿٣﴾ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ ﴿٤
Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.
- That is why this Book falls under the Guidance, as Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:
وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا أَعْجَمِيًّا لَّقَالُوا لَوْلَا فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ أَأَعْجَمِيٌّ وَعَرَبِيٌّ قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هُدًى وَشِفَاءٌ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى أُولَـٰئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ – 41:44
And if We had sent this as a Qur’an in a foreign language other than Arabic, they would have said: “Why are not its Verses explained in detail (in our language)? What! (A Book) not in Arabic and (the Messenger) an Arab?” Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it (the Qur’an) is blindness for them. They are those who are called from a place far away (so they neither listen nor understand).
The outcome of those who believe in Allaah and follow what has been sent down to them from their Lord are on true Guidance and they are the Successful- And in opposition, Those who do not follow that what has been sent down from their Lord are astray and they are in loss.
- The opposite of هُدَى (hudaa/guidance) is ضَلاَلَة (dhalaalah/astray)- And the opposite of فَلاَح (falaah/success) is خُسرَان (khusraan/loss)
- In the verse [2:5] أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ – Here Allaah mentions two rulings of those who follow the Kitaab and Sunnah:
1) That they are upon Guidance – And in opposition ‘Astray’
2) That they are Successful – And in opposition ‘Loss’
- The prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: كُلّ بِدعَة ضَلاَلَة ‘Every innovation is misguidance/straying’- This is where the scholars took that whoever is not following the Quraan and Sunnah has to be on a bid’ah
- If you are not the slave of Allaah you are the slave of the shaytaan, so you are either this or that and there is no middle course here. As the mu’tazilah مُعتَزِلَة (a deviated sect) believes in that there is a middle course
- There are many who are in ضلالة (astray) thinking they are upon Guidance- As Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said in [18:103/104]:
قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالًا – الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا
Say (O Muhammad ): “Shall We tell you the greatest losers in respect of (their) deeds? “Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds!
Holding on to the Quraan and Sunnah is first before anything else Tawheed and then Salaah, Zakaah, Fasting, Hajj, loving a Muslim for the sake of Allaah, smiling to your brother Muslim, all of this is Islaam, and once you start differentiating then the Quraan is a proof against you or for you.
Allaahسبحانه وتعالى said:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ- 2:208
O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islam (by obeying all the rules and regulations of the Islamic religion) and follow not the footsteps of Shaitan (Satan). Verily! He is to you a plain enemy.
- When Sheikh Al ‘Othaymeen was explaining the hadeeth which says: ‘القُرآنُ حُجَّةٌ لَكَ أو عَلَيكَ’ (Alqur’aanu hujjatun laka aw ‘alayka/ The Quraan is evidence for you or against you) – this is in the book An-Nawawiy in Riyaadus Saaliheen. He said there is no middle course it is either for you or against you. So acting upon it is an evidence for you and not acting upon it is an evidence against you.
The matters of Balaaghah (Beautification in speech)
When we point out to that which is near we say هَذَا (haadha) and when we point out to that which is far we say ذَلِكَ
In some verses Allaah mentions His Book by saying هَذَا like in His saying [6:155]: وَهَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ and sometimes He uses ذلك as in His saying [2:1]: ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ
So here why did Allaah سبحانه وتعالى use the word ذلك ‘that’ which points out to something far– He uses it to glorify the Quraan, to show how high of a level it is, how great it is, because it is His word.
- بَلاَغَة (balaaghah) is beautification of speech/style of speech- How to deliver the speech in the most powerful and beautiful way
- Everything in the Quraan has to be mentioned for a benefit.
- If a certain command trend wasn’t followed in speech there has to be a reason for it/a great benefit behind it.
- As for example when you say: ‘That is my father’ and he is sitting next to you, the reason for you saying ‘that’ is to honor him (he is high in level and position- so he is far away from you in the sense of level). And also when a father says: ‘That is my son’ and he is sitting next to him, the reason for him saying ‘that’ is to show that he is a glorifying him- You can call he who is in a high place in your heart ‘that’. Also when you want to glorify the Quraan and it is just next to you say: ‘That is the Quraan’ (because it has a high place in your heart)
- When Allaah سبحانه وتعالى uses the ‘far’ word of calling His prophets as in [2:253] تِلكَ الرُّسُلُ – He is glorifying His prophets
- Here they used تِلكَ in تِلكَ الرّسُل , because it points out to a group and the word which expresses the group is feminine- Like the word الصحابة from the aspect of the word it is feminine (it has a taa marbootah), although it is permissible to use it in a masculine manner (and this we will take in Nahw (Grammar) in shaa Allaah)
(And we will learn Balaaghah after we master Sarf and Nahw in shaa Allaah)
A Beautiful Naseehah
The kuffaar excessively are trying to destroy this language they conquer the Muslim lands- and the first thing they do is that they imply their language, because the language of the people is their culture. So when you have a language in common this drives you to the people who speak this language. As Sheikhul Islaamu bnu Taymiyyah said: ‘The outer resemblance leads to the inner resemblance’. And he also said that when you start speaking Arabic you start to see yourself and feel like the Sahaabah. This because the outer resemblance leads to the inner resemblance. And this is why this vicious attack on the language is there, this teach you how much you have to protect this language and it is the key to understanding the Quraan your Religion. So teach yourself and your children the Arabic language.
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah