Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 14

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

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(Ustaadh wrote a couple of verbs on the board and asked the students question regarding those verbs, which are: قَالَ , وَأَدَ, شَرِبَ, رَأَى, عَبَدَ, دَعَا, قَتَلَ, دَافَعَ, قَاتَلَ, سَأَلَ, يَعلَمُ)

Q1: Is قَالَ Saheeh, if not what is it?

A: No, it is not صحيح ,because its ‘Ayn contains one of hurooful ‘illah حُرُوفُ العِلَّة so this verb is mu’tall مُعتَلّ

Q2: Is it Saalim سَالِم ?

A: No, it is not , because for it to beسَالِم it has to be free from حُرُوف العِلَّة

Q3: What kind of مُعتلّ is it?

A: It is Ajwaf أجوف

Q4: Is وَأَدَ Saheeh or Mu’tall?

A: It is مُعتلّ , because its Faa contains one of حُرُوف العلَّة   

Q5: What kind of مُعتَل is it?

A: It is Mithaal مِثَال

Q6: Is شَرِبَ Saheeh or Saalim?

A: Both, it is صحيح  ,because it doesn’t contain حرف علة and it is سَالِم , because it is free from three things: Hurooful ‘illah , the Hamzah and Multiplicity/doubling

Q7: Is Saheeh or Saalim?

A: Both, because the root letters of the verb are three the ‘ayn ‘ع’ , laam ‘ل’ ,and meem ‘م’ and all of these letters are huroofun saheehah حُرُوفٌ صَحِيحَة there is no harf ‘illah حرف علة , so this verb is صَحِيح – And it is also سَالِم , because it is free from three things: Hurooful ‘illah, the Hamzah and Multiplicity/doubling

Q8: دَافَعَ is on the scale of فَاعَلَ is this verb Saheeh or Saalim

A: Both, because the root letters of the verb are three the daal ‘د’, faa ‘ف’ , and ‘ayn ‘ع’ and all of these letters are حُرُوفٌ صَحِيحَة there is no حَرفُ عِلَّة , so this verb is صحيح – And it is also سَالِم , because it is free from three things: Hurooful ‘illah, the Hamzah and Multiplicity/doubling

Q9: Is it Mu’tall?

A: No, it is not, because all its root letters are حُرُوفٌ صَحِيحَة there is no حَرفُ عِلَّة .

Q10: Is قَاتَل Saalim or Saheeh?

A: Both, because the root letters of the verb are three the qaaf ‘ق’, taa ‘ت’ , and laam ‘ل’ and all of these letters are حُرُوفٌ صَحِيحَة there is no حَرفُ عِلَّة , so this verb is صحيح – And it is also سَالِم , because it is free from three things: Hurooful ‘illah, the Hamzah and Multiplicity/doubling

Q11: How is قَاتَلَ different from قَتَلَ ?

A: قَتل has all root letters and قاتل has an extra letter ‘the alif’

Q12: Is رَأَى Saheeh or Saalim?

A: Neither, it is not Saheeh because its laam contains حرف علة – and it is not Saalim because it contains two of the three things it has to be free from to be a Saalim, and those two things are: Harful ‘illah and the Hamzah

 

Q13: Is عَبَدَ Saheeh or Saalim?

A: Both, it isسَالِمٌ صَحِيحٌ (Saheehun Saalim)- It is صَحِيح ,because it doesn’t contain حرف علة and it is سالم ,because it is free from three things: Hurooful ‘illah, the Hamzah and Multiplicity/doubling

Q14: How do we call دَعَا (which category does it fall under)?

A: It is مُعتَلّ, because its laam is حرف علة

Q15: What kind of مُعتل is it?

A: It is Naaqis نَاقِص

Q16: Is سَأَلَ Saalim or Ajwaf (Mu’tall)?

A: Neither, it is not سَالِم , because it contains one of the three things it has to be free from to be a Saalim, which is the Hamzah- and it is not مُعتل أجوف ,because its ‘ayn is a hamzah and not an alif

 

Q17: What is it?

A: It is صحيح

  • The Hamzah is not a Harf ‘illah it is Harfun Saheeh, because it is not an Alif!
  • When we look to whether a verb is Saheeh, Saalim, Mu’tall etc always take the next steps:
  1. Look to the original/root letters
  2. Discard the extra letter(s)
  3. Decide
  • In the verb دَافع the alif is not a root letter it is an extra letter, which doesn’t make it a Mu’tall, but Saalim.

As mentioned before that the verb containing حُرُوفُ العِلَّة  is of three types:

  1. When it comes in the beginning we call it مِثَال(Mithaal)
  2. When it comes in the middle we call it أَجوَف (Ajwaf)
  3. When it comes in the end we call it نَاقِص (Naaqis)

We call a verb that has two of its original/root letters as harfu ‘illah , لَفِيفٌ , and this has two cases:

1)      When there is حَرفُ عِلَّة in both the Faa and the Laam, this is called:  لَفِيفٌ مَفرُوقٌ  (lafeefun mafrooq/a seperated wrapping)

2)      When there is حَرفُ عِلَّة  in both the ‘Ayn and the Laam, we call it  لَفِيفٌ مَقرُون  (lafeefun maqroon/ connected wrapping)

  • When two huroof of ‘illah gather together in a verb, they are either gathered together with a seperation, or without a seperation
  • لَفِيف (lafeef) means: wrapped around
  • An example of لَفيف مفروق is : وَقَى  (waqaa), this verb has two  حرف علة in its Faa and Laam (beginning and end)- Because it has two حُروف علة   it is لفيف and because it is on its Faa and Laam it is called لفيف مفروق , it is called like that because the two حرف علة  are wrapped around each other with something separating between them (harfun saheeh)
  • An example of لَفيف مقرون is: نَوَى(nawaa), this verb has two حُرُوف علة  in its ‘Ayn and Laam (middle and end)  – Because it has two حروف علة  it is لفيف  and because it is on its ‘Ayn and Laam it is called  لفيف مقرون, it is called like that because the two حرف علة  are wrapped around each other without separation
  • The difference between the two is that in لفيف مفروق the two   حرف علةare seperated by a Saheeh letter and in لَفيف مقرون  the two حروف علة  is without a separation
  • A لفيف مقرون  doesn’t come in its Faa and ‘Ayn only in its ‘Ayn and Laam
  • مفروق means: that which is seperated, from فَرَقَ
  • مقرون means: that which is joined/connected, from قَرَنَ

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You can also call the Mithaal مُعتَلُّ الفَاء (Mu’tallul Faa-) – Meaning that it has a  حرف علة  in its Faa-

And the Ajwaf مُعتَلُّ العَين  (Mu’tallul ‘Ayn) – Meaning  that it has a حرف علة   in its ‘Ayn

And the Naaqis مُعتَلُّ اللاَّم  (Mu’tallul Laam) – Meaning that it has a  حرف علة in its Laam

  • Using these terms you are specifying where the harfu ‘illah is

The verb which has a Hamzah is called  مَهمُوز (Mahmooz)

When the Hamzah falls in the beginning like: أَخَذَ, we say it is مَهمُوزُ الفَاء (Mahmoozul Faa-)

When the Hamzah falls in the middle like: وَأدَ, we say it is مَهمُوز العَين (Mahmoozul ‘Ayn)

When the Hamzah falls in the end like: بَدَأَ , we say it is مَهمُوزُ اللاَّم (Mahmoozul Laam)

  • مهموز means: that which has a hamzah- And it is on the scale of مَفعُول (maf’ool)

The verb which has Multiplicity, meaning both the ‘Ayn and Laam are identical we call it مُضَاعَف , like: مَدَّ, شَدَّ, رَدَّ

  • مُضاعَف  (Mudaa’af) and مُضَعَّف (Muda’’af) both are correct, which means that which is doubled
  • Here there is only one case so there is no Mudaa’aful Faa-, ‘Ayn and Laam

Now Alhamdullilaah we came across all the verbs with all their names and after we take the three forms of the Maadhiyy and how to change it to the Mudaari’ we are ready to start taking the Chapters and the Vocabulary in shaa Allaah

(Ustaadh Advised us to prepare for the next class by reading from his book of Sarf about the three forms of the Maadhiyy and how to change it to the Mudaari’, you can find it in part three and to download Ustaadh’s book click HERE)

  • مَاض (Maadh) is the past tense and مضارع (Mudaari’) is the present tense

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

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2 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 14

  1. zohraalfransiya February 20, 2013 at 3:21 pm Reply

    Asalamou aleikoum
    JazakALlahoukhairan oukthy Umm Sufyaan

  2. sarf4sisters February 20, 2013 at 5:59 pm Reply

    بسم الله

    وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

    Wa iyyaaki ukhtee Zohra

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