Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 15

بسم الله الرجمن الرحيم

Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.



We have summed up all the rulings of a verb when it contains Harful-`illah

1.      When harful-`illah is at the beginning the verb is called mithaal or mu`tallul- faa

2.     With harful-`illah at the end it is called Naaqis or mu`tallul- `laam

3.     That which has harful-`illah in the middle is called ajwaaf or mu`tallul- `ayn

4.     That which has two harful-`illah is called Lafeef

5.     That which has harful`illah in the faa position and laam position (separated by a saheeh letter) is called lafeefun mafruuq

6.    That which has a harful-illah in the `ayn and the laam  is called lafeefun maqroon

We have finished speaking about al-Mu`tall (verb containing harf `illah) and about Al-Mahmuuz (verb containing hamzah).

 Clarification concerning the Muda`af >>>

Muda`af is either a three letter verb or a four letter verb.

 When it is a 3 letter verb then the `ayn and the laam are identical EXAMPLE: مدّ شدّ قدّ دعّ ردّ   (madda, shadda, qadda, da“a, radda) 

  • the letters in these words that bear a shaddah were originally separated ->  مدّ  –  مدَدَ   (madda is originally madada)  and the same with all the examples – shadda was shadada, qadda was qadada, da“a was da`a`a, radda wa radada). 
  • So we see the `ayn and the laam are the same letter – this is the muda`af – it is when the doubling happened with the root letters.  When that doubling is a root letter itself it is Al-Muda`af. 
  • In the previous examples (such as Qattala) it was said that this type was  a muda’af but this was not correct because in this example of Qattala – the first taa is parallel to the `Ayn and the second Taa is extra –  and since the the letter that were doubled are not both original root letters then it is not Muda`af. 

*IT is only mudaa`af when the `Ayn and the Laam are the same.*

  • They don’t necessarily have to be merged together as in Surah Luqman we find the example with the word: ﭐغْضُضْ  (Luqman:19) and the word: ﭐشدُدْ (Taha:31).  The alif in the beginning in both of these examples is the extra letter.  These are mudaa`af because the `aynul kalimah and the laamul kalimah are the same.  (We will take the rulings of the mudaa`af in the future classes Inshaa’Allaah)


The third type of extra letter >>>

When the four letter verb is weighed on the scale (fa`ala) there is a problem because the scale is only 3 letters and the 4 letter verb is 4 letters …

دحرج Dahraja (means “rolled” as in rolled something)

The four letters are all original – they are all considered root letters.  So how should we put it in the scale?

  • The daal is the faaul-kalimah,
  • The haa is the `aynul kalimah,
  • The raa is the laamul kalimah
  • and the jeem is ???  What to do? 
    • The scholars have said that in this case we add an extra laam to the scale:  the jeem is an extra letter according to the scale (it is an added “laam” in the scale fa`ala to fa`alala) but it is not an extra letter in the word weighed – it is an original letter in the word weighed.  

So, the first type of extra letters is that which is an extra letter according to the scale but not in the word weighed.

Dahraja is on the scale of fa`lala دَحْرَجَ  عَلى وَزْنِ فَعْلَلَ 

The Mudaa`af in the four letter verb>>>

It is where the faa and the laam are identically of a letter and the `ayn and the second laam are identically of another letter. 

  • Examples:  وَسْوَسَ زَلْزَلَ    عَصْعَصَ  (waswasa, zalzala, `as`asa).
  • Waswasa is on the scale of Fa`lala.  The Faa and laam are identical letter (waaw) anf the `ayn and second laam are of different identical letters (seen).

*Once you understand these three:  AL-MU`TALL, AL-MAHMUUZ, AL-MUDAA`AF, it will be very easy for you how to identify how to say a verb with its present tense,  and this will be in the coming classes…*


It is called: ماضٍ   Maadh(in) (a past verb) unless it has “al” before it then we say, الماضي Al-Maadhee (the past verb). 

  • “Maadh” (silencing the last letter because we stopped on it)  – a past verb
  • “al-Maadhee” –  the past verb

In the Maadhee of the 3 letter verb there are only three forms.

  1. 1.      فَعَلَ – As in: عَبَدَ   كَتَبَ  أَخَذَ
  2. 2.     فَعِلَ – As in: عَلِمَ  حَسِبَ  شَرِبَ
  3. 3.     فَعُلَ – As in: شَرُفَ  عَظُمَ  كَبُرَ

And this is specifically speaking about the 3 letter verb – not 4 letter verb and not a noun.

Three things are seen in these three forms:

  1. 1.      The faa always has a fathah
  2. 2.     The laam always has a fathah (by default –  meaning there are exceptions, something could happen to the verb that could change the harakah on the laam)
  3. 3.     The only thing which changes is the (harakah) on the `ayn.  It alternates with the three different harakaat.


~END of DARS ~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah


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