Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 16

بسم الله الرجمن الرحيم

Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and the salaat and salaam on The Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Last Day.

 

In this class   inshaa’Allaah – we hope to take the following two things:

  1. 1.      How to change the form of the madhee into the verb taking place in present tense (the mudhaari`).
  2. 2.     The combinations (maadh and mudhaari`) which are going to be what we call “chapters.”

 

NEW NOTES >>>

Whenever we want to change a three letter maadh (past verb) into a mudhaari` (present verb) we have to follow these steps: (These steps apply to any of the three forms of the three letter maadhee)”

فَعَلَ

فَعِلُ

فَعُلَ

  1. 1.       Add a yaa to the beginning of the maadhee and give it a fathah:  يَفَعَلَ
  2. 2.      Silence the faa’ul-kalimah:  يَفْعَلَ
  3. 3.        Replace the harakah (fathah) on laamul-kalimah with a dhammah:  يَفْعَلُ

The same steps are applied to the other forms:

  • ·        فَعِلَ   –   يَفْعِلُ       fa`ila to yaf`ilu 
  • ·        فَعُلَ   –   يَفْعُلُ       fa`ula to yaf`ulu

We notice the following:

  1. 1.      The default harakah of the end of the maadhee is a fathah
  2. 2.     The default harakah of the end of the mudhaari` is a dhammah
  3. 3.     The `ayn is the letter which changes its harakah, the rest stay the same (in the madhee and the mudhaari`)
  4. 4.     The yaa is the common example used when teaching the mudhaari`

There are 4 letters which are found at the beginning of every mudhaari` and those letters are called أحروف المضارعة   “the letters of the Mudhaari`” Those four letters are الهمزة the hamzah (أ),  النو the noon (ن), الياءthe yaa’ (ي), and التاء  the taa’ (ت).   

They have gathered them in the word:  أنيت   “anaytu”  (or –  نأيت  “na’aytu”, or أتين  “atayna”).

These are the ONLY letters that you will find in the beginning of a mudhaari` – nothing else.

Each form of the maadhee combines with a form of the mudhaari` to make a “chapter” or combination. 

There are nine possible combinations but we only use six.

 

THE COMBINATIONS >>>

 In order to understand which six of the nine combinations are the valid combinations, we must keep in mind some principles, the first being the mother of all principles:  Seek Lightness in Speech.

We call the six combinations:  “Chapters”

Each Maadh (of any verb) can only be combined with its own single form of the mudhaari` (of that verb).

 For Example: 

  • ·        The past verb (madhee) فَتَحَ   (Fataha) has its own singular mudhaari’ –  it is  يَفْتَحُ  (Yaftahu).
  • ·         Yaftahu is the particular mudhaari` of the maadhee fataha.
  • ·         You can’t say Yaftihu or Yaftuhu instead of Yaftahu …  You can only combine a maadhee with its particular mudhaari`.

*Remember that “fa`ala fa’ila, and fa`ula” are scales for the three letter maadhee and “yaf`alu, yaf`ilu, yaf`ulu” are scales for the mudhaari` that goes with the three letter maadhee.

Every single verb (Past tense verb or maadh) can be combined with one single Mudhaari` (Present tense verb) LIKE:  Fataha/Yaftahu which means:  He opened/ He opens –  action taking place in the past/action taking place in the present.

 

The maadhee “fa’ala” has three possible combinations:  Fa’ala/yaf’alu, fa’ala/yaf’ilu and fa’ala/Yaf`ulu.

The maadhee “fa`ila” has two possible combinations:  fa’ila/yaf’alu and fa’ila/yaf`ilu

 

The maadhee “fa’ula” has only one possible combination:  fa’ula/yaf’ulu

 

We will be given many verbs and Ustaadh will tell us what chapter (combination0 they belong to)  For Example: The Mudhaari` for the verb Karuma (on the scale of Fa`ulu) has only one possible mudhaari` which is yakrumu (yaf`ulu), since Verbs on the scale of “fa`ula” only have one possible combination – “ fa`ula/yaf`ulu”

The Mudhaari` for the verb “`Abada” could be one of three possibilities –  it is either `abada/ya`badu, `abada/ya`bidu, or `abada/ya`budu,  but this particular verb (`abada) can only be combined with ya`budu.  `abada/Ya`budu (on the scale of Fa`ala/Yaf`ulu) is the combination for this verb.

 

The Mudhaari for the verb “jalasa” could be one of three possibilities but ths particular verb can only be combined with “yajlisu”.    Jalasa/yajlisu  (on the scale of fa`ala/yaf`ilu)

 

The verb Bada’a  (it is on the scale of fa`ala) so it could have three possible combinations but this particular verb combines with yabda’u (only on the scale of yaf`alu).  You cant say Bada’a/yabdu’u  neither can you say bada’a/yabdi’u.

As we study each chapter, the Ustaadh (May Allaah preserve him) will give us principles to know which verb follows which combination.  This is what is meant by “chapters” –  certain verbs in their forms following certain combinations.

All the three letter verbs in the entire Arabic tongue, follows only one of those six combinations.  This makes the vocabulary so easy for you to speak correctly and to understand.  So what is left now is to understand which verb goes where and the principle behind it.

 

From the Questions:

To memorize the chapters and what verbs they contain you must repeat it.

Mu`tall is a verb that contains one or more of the hurooful-`illah so the lafeef falls under the mu`tall.

The letters of the mudhaari` don’t change the combination.  Yaa is the common example but you could say for example:  fataha/naftahu or fathah/taftahu etc…

The letters that are added to the mudhaari` are extra letters.

 

Teacher gave example for taking the knowledge step by step; If a bag of balls was thrown at us we wouldn’t be able to catch them all – but if they were thrown one by one   then we will be able to catch them. –  Once you rush that is when you start to fall back and drop out,  the juristic principle says: “ Whoever hastens something before its time will be punished with it being taken from him.”

Sincere advice:  Do not rush the fruit of your learning – it will come.  The more you are patient the more it will come

 

End of Dars

Allaah knows Best –  All Praise is for Him and Salaat and Salaam on the Rasool.

Transcribed by:  Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah

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