بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
A couple of beneficial points of the previous class:
- The author when he ordered us to do something he forbid us to do the opposite and this is just as Allaah سبحانه وتعالى does in the Quraan by ordering us to do something He follows that up with the forbidding of doing the opposite, like in [4:36] [3:103] and many other verses
- Al-Bid’ah linguistically means: something new , and in the Islamic understanding it means: Something new in Religion
- The scholars mentioned that Innovations are of two types:
1) Innovations that concern Belief
2) Innovations that concern Practice
- An example of innovation in Practice is, Praying Salaatul Maghreb with four raka’aat
- لعلَّكَ تُفلِحُ means: That you may be successful- Allaah said that whoever follows that what He has revealed down will be successful, and this is taken from [2:2-5] and the two rulings which are mentioned are that they are Upon Guidance and Successfulness
- The opposite of Guidance هُدى is Misguidance/astray ضَلالة
- And the opposite of Success فلاح is Loss خُسرَان
- The one who doesn’t follow the Kitaab and Sunnah is both Astray and In Loss
- The one who is not Upon the Quraan and Sunnah has to be upon a Bid’ah, and that’s why the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم said:’Every innovation is misguidance’ كُلّ بِدعَة ضَلاَلَة, because the innovations are not what Allaah has revealed and Allaah said that we will only be guided if we follow what He has revealed so that means that whoever does not follow what He has revealed will be misguided, and that misguidance is every innovation
- A great benefit in Balaaghah of using a word of pointing to something far or close, like in Allaah’s saying: ذَلِكَ الكِتَابُ لاَ رَيبَ فِيه – And this is to raise and honor His Book
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وَدِن بِكِتَابِ اللهِ وَ السُّنَنِ التِي # أَتَت عَن رَسُولِ اللهِ تَنجُو وَتَربَحُ
And worship by Allaah’s Book and the Sunnah which # have come from the Messenger of Allaah, you will be saved and you will be profitable
- دِنْ is a command, and it is taken from دَانَ, يَدِينُ – The alif in ‘daana’ is original, because it is turned from an original letter which is the ‘yaa’ (and that whatever is turned from an original that letter is an original). To know why it was originally a yaa and not a waaw, is by looking to its Mudaari’(present verb) in this case يَدِينُ , here you can see that its ‘ayn is a yaa which means that the yaa is the original letter of the alif in ‘daana.’
- دَانَ has many meanings, it means here: worhsip, and take as a ritual, and a religion
- ‘Worship by Allaah’s book’, worship using Allaah by seeking and following His Book and the Hadeeth
- كِتَابِ الله means: The Book of Allaah
- The way to worship Allaah is by following His Book and the Sunnah and whatever branched out from the Quraan and Sunnah and nothing else- as for example: we find in the Quraan that Allaah orders us to pray, so we will pray based upon what we found in the Book of Allaah- And from the Sunnah brushing our teeth with a siwaak, you take that as an act of worship according to what is found in the Sunnah
- That what branched out from the Kitaab and Sunnah for example is Al-Ijmaa’ ‘الإجماع’ the Unanimous Agreement
- This verse is just like the verse mentioned before it only it has an extra clarification- In the first verse it was an order to hold on to the Rope of Allaah, and in the second verse he is being more specific and more detailed. It is like saying: hold on to the Book of Allaah and Act Upon it- Holding on to it is acting upon it
السُّنَن is the plural of سُنَّة , and what is meant here are three things in general:
1) The sayings
2) The actions
3) And the approvals, Of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم
- They made it plural in the sense of those three types mentioned above
- سُنَّة linguistically means: A way (any way) , but in the verse it is the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم which includes his sayings, actions and approvals
- Example of His sayings, like in the hadeeth where the prophet said: Whoever beliefs in Allaah and the day of judgment let him be hospitable to his guests. مَن كَانَ يُؤمِنُ بِاللهِ وَاليومِ الآخِرِ فليكرم ضَيفه – His actions, like when one of the shahaabah says that he saw that thee prophet did so and so (like for example cleaning his teeth with assiwaak, so here it is an action of him and not a saying or an approval)- His approval, is when a companion does something and he keeps silent about it (which is considered as an opproval) – as when a companion rose from the rukoo’ and said ربنا ولك الحمد حمدا كثيرا طيبا مباركا فيه ، ملء السماوات والأرض ، وملء ما شئت من شيء بعد ‘rabbanaa walaka lhamdu, hamdan katheeran tayyiban mubaarakan feeh, mil-ussamawaati walardi wamil-u maa shi-ta min shay-in ba’d’. The prophet did not forbid him to say that, which makes it an approval.
- The author specified the Sunan by saying the following التِي أَتَت عَن رَسُول اللهِ which means: Which have come from the Messenger of Allaah , in the sense of authentication (which has been proven to be authenticated , no matter of what level it is, just as long it is not weak in the sense of it not being accepted)
- أتَتْ means: it came
- Here it is as if he made the Sunan a person who did an action which is ‘the coming’ – so this is metaphorically speaking .
- The author said ‘أتت’ and he didn’t say for example , ‘رُوِيَتْ’ (narrated) or ‘heard’- and when you say ‘أتت’ you are expressing certainty
- He could have said ‘follow the Sunnah which has reach you’, but that is not enough- but when you add to it ‘from the Messenger of Allaah’, here it includes the condition of authentication
(to study the news and to see if the principles apply for this news to be accepted and to be considered authentic and proof that the Prophet said it. And the principle of authentication and deciding what is accepted and what is not can be found in a particular science which is called: مُصطًلًحُ الحَدِيث (Mustalahul hadeeth), and this is in shaa Allaah one of ustaadh’s study plans)
تَنجُو وتَربَحُ is a conclusion to that what is mentioned before it
- If you follow the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of the Prophet than two things will happen: تَنجُو (you will be saved) and تَربَحُ (you will be profitable) – The difference between the two is that when someone is saved it doesn’t necessary mean that he won something, and winning is further than just being saved it is something extra- Allaah سبحانه وتعالى said:
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ اللَّـهِ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ – 9:20
Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah – Islamic Monotheism) and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allah’s Cause with their wealth and their lives are far higher in degree with Allah. They are the successful.
In [23:1-10] Allaah said about the Mu-minoon in verse 10 that they are the inheritors , which means that they have won
And also in [6:15-16] Allaah said:
قُلْ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿١٥﴾ مَّن يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ
Say: “I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the torment of a Mighty Day.” Who is averted from (such a torment) on that Day, (Allah) has surely been Merciful to him. And that would be the obvious success.
- الرِّبحُ is something over succes it is winning something- And the believers win Paradise and the best thing is that they will get to see the Face of Allaah
- If you worship Allaah by the Quraan and the Sunnah you will be saved and gain much profit. As the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said in a hadeeth that the Jews will separate in 71 sects and the Christians will separate in 72 sects and the Ummah of the Prophet will separate in 73 sects and all of them will be in the hellfire except one, this hadeeth was narrated by At-Tirmidiyy
افترقت اليهود على إحدى وسبعين فرقة، وافترقت النصارى على اثنتين وسبعين فرقة، وستفترق هذه الأمة على ثلاث وسبعين فرقة، كلها في النار إلا واحدة، قيل: من هي يا رسول الله؟ قال: من كان على مثل ما أنا عليه اليوم وأصحابي وفي رواية: قيل فمن الناجية؟ قال: ما أنا عليه وأصحابي رواه جماعة من الأئمة.
- ‘All of them will be in the hellfire’- means that all of them will be punished and it doesn’t mean that they will be forever in the hellfire- all of them are exposed to the hellfire, to be punished for whatever they have been deviated to
- ‘Except one’ when the sahaabah heard that, they asked about which one it is, because they wanted to be of those people who will be saved from the hellfire.
- From this perspective (this hadeeth) they have called the group (that one group which the Prophet spoke about) الفِرقَةُ النَّاجِية (Al-Firqatun Naajiyah/The saved group). If we call them The saved Group, are we innovating? No, we only translating what the Prophet meant, and the people of knowledge agreed upon this (Ijmaa’). And that is why it is important to follow the Unanimous Agreement of the Scholars.
- We can’t say that we can’t use the naming of Al-Muhaajiroon and Al-Ansaar, because Al-Muhaajiroon are the ones who have migrated from Mekka to Medinah (after that they were called like that)- And the ones who have received them where called Al-Ansaar, because they gave them victory/success.
- The response of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to the sahaabah when they asked about the saved one (group) was مَن كَانَ عَلَى مِثلِ مَا أنَا عَليهِ اليوم وأصحَابي ‘This saved sect are those who are upon what I am upon today and my companions’– So not just the Prophet but also the Companions- and this is the Unanimous agreement that if the Companions agree upon something it is Obligatory to follow, because the Prophet said that this saved group is the one which is upon what he is upon and his companions. And that is because the way of the Prophet and the way of his companions is one way. They only took their way in Religion from the Prophet, he is their teacher/master, the one who taught them how to take the revelation and how to act upon it and how to properly understand it. And in another narration he said الجَمَاعَة ‘The group’ – And that is why the scholars unanimously agreed upon calling this saved group (guided group) أَهلُ السُّنَّة والجَمَاعَة ‘The group that is upon what the Prophet and his Companions are upon’ , and this because of those two narrations. They are the one who are following the Sunnah (the way of the Prophet). Giving those names to the Guided Group is not separating, this is targeting people who are upon the guidance and who of them are upon straying but think they are upon guidance.
- الجماعة means: The group
- According to the revelation the Prophet knew that there would be such a parting, so he gave the way out, by telling what the saved group is (the ones who follow him and his companions)
~~~End of Class~~~
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah