Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 17

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Small Review >>>

  • The فِعل is either a three letter verb ‘ثُلاَثِيّ’ or a four letter verb ‘رُبَاعِيّ’  and each one of these two is either free from any extra letter(s) ‘مُجَرَّد’  or with extra letter(s) ‘مَزِيدٌ فِيه’ , and each one of them (all the four mentioned before) are either free from hurooful ‘illah, the hamzah and multiplicity ‘سَالِم’  or not ‘غَير سَالِم’

New Notes >>>

وَنَعنِي بِ(السَّالِمِ): مَا سَلِمَتْ حُرُوفُهُ الأَصلِيَّةُ الَّتِي تُقَابَلُ الفَاءُ وَالعَينُ واللاَّم, مِن حُرُوفِ العِلَّةِ والهَمزَةِ والتَّضعِيفِ

(Wana’nee bis Saalim: maa salimat huroofuhul asliyyatul latee tuqaabalul faa-u wal ‘aynu wal laamu, min huroofil ‘illati wal hamzati wat tadh’eef)

And we mean by السَّالم: whatever had its original letters free/secure of –which are made parallel to the Faa, and the ‘Ayn, and the Laam- Hurooful ‘illah, and the Hamzah, and Multiplicity (tadh’eef)
  • The square brackets ‘[ ]’ in the book are only for clarification and it is not from the words of the author
  • نَعنِي (na’nee) means: we mean
  • ما (maa) means: what or whatever
  • تَضعِيف (tadh’eef) means: doubling something
  • سَلِمَتْ  (salimat) means: was secure/free
  • حُرُوفُهُ  (huroofuhu) means: its letters
  • الأَصلِيَّة  (al-asliyyah) means: the original
  • Here the author placed an embedded clause in Arabic called  الجُملَةُ المُعتَرِضَة (al-jumlatul mu’taridhah) which is the next sentence : ‘which are made parallel to the Faa, and the ‘Ayn, and the Laam’ in Arabic ‘الَّتِي تُقَابَلُ الفَاءُ وَالعَينُ واللاَّم’-  With this he explains/clarifies what the original letters are. And this is a sentence which has been placed in another sentence to make something clear/to explain something, an indirect sentence placed between two dashes. As for example:
    • I attended brother Fahd’s classes –which were online- for three years now . The embedded sentence here is between two dashes ‘which were online.’
    • There is also a hadeeth in Al-Bukhaariy hadeeth nr 3 of a  جُملة مُعترضة , where it mentions that the prophet was isolated in the cave of حِرَاء (hiraa-) then he used to يَتَحَنَّثُ  (yatahannathu) in it- and it is worshipping -… etc – In Arabic : وكان يخلو في غار حراء فيتحنث فيه – وهو التعبد-(wakaana yakhloo fee ghaari hiraa-in fayatahannathu feeh- wa huwat ta’abbud) . So here the narrator added a sentence in between his narration which is ‘and it is worshipping’  وهو العبادة , to clarify/explain the meaning of يتحنث so he embedded the sentence وهو التعبد

أمَّا الثُّلاَثِيُّ المُجّرَّدُ: فَإِن كَانَ مَضِيهِ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ مَفتُوحَ العَينِ .. فَمُضَارِعُهُ يَفعُلُ, أو يَفعِلُ, بِضَمِّ العَينِ, أو كَسرِهَا, نَحوَ: نَصَرَ يَنصُرُ, وضَرَبَ يَضرِبُ

(wa ammath thulaathiyyul mujarradu: fa-in kaana maadheehi ‘alaa wazni fa’ala maftoohal ‘ayni … famudhaari’uhu yaf’ulu, aw yaf’ilu, bidammil ‘ayni, aw kasrihaa, nahwu: nasara yansuro, wa dharaba yadhribu)

As for the three letter verb which is free from any extra letters:  if its Maadh was on the scale of فَعَلَ  (fa’ala) with giving a fathah to the ‘Ayn … Then its Mudaari’ is يَفعُلُ or يَفعِلُ , with giving a dhammah  to the ‘An, or a kasrah , such as:   نَصَرَ يَنصُرُ, وضَرَبَ يَضرِبُ
  • أَو (aw) means: or
  • You might think why didn’t he mention here يَفعَلُ the third combination, but he will mention it in another paragraph, where he says: ‘And it comes also on the scale of يَفعَلُ with the fathah on the ‘ayn’.

The Question here is why did he separate between the two and he didn’t mention them together?

  • نَحوُ  (nahw) means: such as/as/like
  • نَصَرَ يَنصُرُ is an example of فَعَلَ يَفعُلُ  – and  ضَرَبَ يَضرِبُ is an example of فَعَلَ يَفعِلُ
  • فَعَلَ يَفعُلُ  is the first combination and فَعَلَ يَفعِلُ   is the second combination

Small Quiz >>>

Q1: How many forms are there for the Maadhee?

A: Three: فَعَلَ , فَعِلَ, فَعُلَ

Q2: How many forms are there for the Mudhaari’?

A: Three: يَفعُلُ , يَفعِلُ, يَفعَلُ

Q3: How many combinations did we agree upon?

A: Six: فَعَلَ, يَفعُلُ – فَعَلَ, يَفعِلُ – فَعَلَ , يَفعَلُ – فَعِلَ, يَفعَلُ – فَعِلَ, يَفعِلُ – فَعُلَ , يَفعُلُ

Q4: How many possible combinations did we drop out?

A: Three, because the possible combinations we can make out of those forms are 9 and there are only 6 combinations we agreed upon, which makes the other three combinations drop: فَعِلَ, يَفعُلُ – فَعُلَ, يَفعِلُ –  فَعُلَ, يَفعَلُ

Q5: How many types of fi’l do we have?

A: In general there are two types of verbs: Three lettered verb ثُلاثِيّ  and  Four lettered verb رُبَاعِيّ

Q6: How many types does the ثلاثيّ  and رباعيّ  have?

A: Two types: Mujarrad مُجَرَّد  and Mazeed مَزِيدٌ

Q6: The Saalim ‘سَالِم’ is free from how many things:

A: Three things: Hurooful ‘illah ‘ حُورُوف العِلَّة ’ , the Hamzah ‘ الهَمزَة ’ , Multiplicity ‘ تَضعِيف

Q7: The Saheeh ‘صَحيح’ is free from how many things:

A: One thing: Hurooful ‘illah ‘ حُورُوف العِلَّة

Q8: Besides where Saheeh ‘ صَحِيح ’ is free from where is Saalim ‘ سَالِم ’ free from?

A: the Hamzah ‘ الهَمزَة ’ , Multiplicity ‘ تَضعِيف

Extra benefit:

A student of knowledge should be always ready and exercise his analyzing/thinking abilities, because you need cleverness الذَّكَاء (adh-dhakaa-u) in knowledge. As one of the Scholars mentioned in a Poetry:

أَخِي لَن تَنَالَ العِلمَ إِلاَّ بِسِتَّةٍ # سَأَنبِيكَ عَن تَفصِيلِهَا بِبَيَانِ

ذَكَاءٍ وَحرصٍ وَاجتِهَادٍ بُلغَةٍ # وَصُحبَة أستَاذٍ وَطُول زَمَانِ

Brother you won’t get your knowledge except by six things # …etc and one of those six things is cleverness. The scholars agreed that of the characteristics the Usooli (person who has the tools to derive the rulings from their evidence) should have is claverness (he has to be smart). And you can get there, if you are slow don’t think that you will never be fast in catching information and analyzing it. For some people it need practice and the more knowledge you gain the more you shall become smarter and smarter and especially if you get used to the language of the Scholars, because this itself is moving your brain fantastically. So you have to be smart and ready to answer any question in any way.

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Homework >>>

Ustaadh gave the students a Quiz as homework that they can search the answer of in his Book that you can download HERE (clue: the topic that speaks about the combinations) and the answer should be submitted as a reply to Ustaadh’s question which he posted on the forum www.establishingtheprinciples.org – You can find it in the topic: MORPHOLOGY under the title: CLASS 17 QUIZ .  And all the students have the time before next Arabic class

Posted by Ustaadh on the forum:

The Question Goes like so:

           – In ( تصريف العزي ) when the Author started speaking about the first three combinations, he  didn’t mention them all together in the same sequence, rather:

           1- He mentioned the first two together, and gave examples to them

           2- Then he mentioned the third combination alone in a new line independently

          What made him do this?!

          Couldn’t he have mentioned them all together, since they all go with ( َفَعَل ) ?!

   Your answer should be:

          1- Well explained

          2- Complete

          3- Thorough

          4- Using your own words, not copy pasting!

          5- You are not to ask someone to help you

 What is meant from this is to:

          1- Study

          2- Improve your reading skills (i.e. Proof reading)

          3- teach you how to depend upon yourself

 I wish you all the best, And May Allah be with you always!

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