Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1- Class 19

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

مُتَعَدٍّ (Muta’add) and لاَزِم  (Laazim)

  • مَاضٍ  is the same thing that applies to مُتَعَدٍّ  , this means that when you add ‘ ال ’ you say المَاضِي (with a ي) and when there is no ‘  ’ you say مَاضٍ  Maadh and when continue speaking you say Maadhin  (without a ي) – And the same with مُتَعَدٍّ when adding an ‘ ال ’ you say المُتَعَدِّي  (with a ي ) and when there is no ‘ ال ’ you say  مُتَعَدٍّ–  There is a reason why this ي isn’t there when there is no ال  , but this reason will be explained to us in a more advanced level in shaa Allaah
  • The Muta’add has the power alone to cross to a receiver (transitive)- Basically it needs both a doer, and someone/something which the action has been done to.
  • And one of the ways to know the muta’addin  is that it is correct to ask ‘what/who’ after mentioning the doer and the Laazim cannot be questioned by ‘what/who’ (without using any preposition). As for example:
    • ‘I hit’ – you can ask: ‘You hit what/who?’  Conclusion is that this action (verb) is Muta’add
    • ‘I sat’- you can’t ask: ‘You sat what/who?’ Conclusion is that this action (verb) is Laazim
    • ‘I wrote’- you can ask: ‘You  wrote what?’ Conclusion is that this action (verb) is Muta’add
    • ‘I laughed’- you can’t ask: ‘You laughed what/who?’ Conclusion is that this action (verb) is Laazim
    • ‘I giggled’ – you can’t ask: ‘You giggled what/who?’ Conclusion is that this action (verb) is Laazim

قِيَاس (Qiyaas) and سَمَاع   (Samaa’)

  • Qiyaas: When you have a principle to go back to
  • Samaa’: When you don’t, or when something doesn’t follow the principle it should for no reason other than the Arabs speaking it that way

That which follows قِيَاس (Qiyaas) is called قِيَاسِيّ(Qiyaasiyy) , and that which doesn’t is called سَمَاعِيّ  (Samaa’iyy)

  • The way to refer something to something else is by adding a ‘ي’ , like أَمرِيكَا , أَمرِيكِيّ or ألمَانِيَا, ألمَانِيّor  فَرَنسَا , فَرَنسِيّ  etc
  • When we call it Qiyaasiyy or Samaa’iyy it doesn’t mean that it is the Qiyaas or Samaa’ itself – but this is a reference (how to refer)

*Pay Attention carefully: The case which is made a Qiyaas, is something which happens so frequently that it could be made a principle*

  • As for example:
    • If your mother puts her handbag on the shoe rack when she is home and she rarely removes it from that place when she is home. Here you can turn this into a principle by saying: Whenever the handbag isn’t on the shoe rack my mother isn’t home and whenever it is she is home. So you made out of this a Qiyaas
    • The ambassador has two cars a Mercedes and a four-wheel drive , the car he uses when he goes out to the Embassy -during working hours-  is the four-wheel drive (working car), and when he goes back home he uses his personal car the Mercedes. You have been visiting the Embassy quit often for a couple of years and you noticed this and because of this you can make out of it a principle (Qiyaas). But what if you suddenly find both cars there and he is not there, this would be an exception something odd and according to this case it is called Samaa’ (this exception)
    • قَالَ, بَاعَ, شَرَى, دَعَا, بَغَى  – Because of deep analysis  and from excessive study  of the Arabic structure of words the Scholars noticed that all of these verbs follow a certain Principle , which is that whenever there is a yaa or a waaw which has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah it gets turned into an Alif.
    • Qiyaas is a trend  which is turned into a Principle

 ~~~~~~

Chapter One:  فَعَلَ   يَفعُلُ >>>

This Chapter is Qiyaas in three types of verbs:

The first type of verbs which follow this pattern (Chapter One):

1)      Every Verb where the Waaw is ‘Aynul Kalimah ‘ عَينُ الكَلِمَة

As for example قَالَ  its ‘Ayn is originally a Waaw  ‘قَوَلَ ’ – This means that it belongs to Chapter One فَعَلَ, يَفعُلُ  – so it’s going to be  قَالَ ,يَقُولُ

Before it being قَالَ ,يَقُولُ  it was قَوَلَ, يَقوُلُ

Explanation on how it changed fromيَقوُلُ(yaqwulu)  to  يَقُولُ (yaqoolu)

To make يَقولُ sound like يَفعُلُ  is by placing every harakah on the scale to the word weighed: يَ fathah, قْsukoon, وُ dhammah, لُ dhammah – and you will get  يَقوُلُ(yaqwulu). But the Arabs didn’t say يَقوُلُ(yaqwulu) but they said يَقُولُ (yaqoolu). The reason behind this is because of a Major Principle: ‘Arabs seek lightness in Speech’

The waaw with the dhammah on يَقوُلُ (yaqwulu) is that what makes this word heavy, because the waaw is a heavy letter and the dhammah is a heavy harakah, and a heavy harakah on a heavy letter cases heaviness in speech (the waaw can’t take the burden of the dhammah). And since the Qaaf which comes before it was vacant of any harakah the waaw gave its harakah (dhammah) to the neighbor, and that’s how we got يَقُولُ .

*And this is going to be the Principle for every verb where the ‘Ayn is a waaw*

As for example: بَالَ, يَبُولُ – جَالَ, يَجُولُ – زَالَ, يَزُولُ – آبَ, يَؤُوبُ – تَابَ, يَتُوبُ – جَابَ, يَجُوبُ – سَامَ, يَسُومُ – صَامَ, يَضُومَ – قَامَ, يَقُومُ – رَاجَ, يَرُوجُ – دَامَ, يَدُومُ

  • فَعَلَ, يَفعُلُ  is just like – كَتَبَ, يَكتُبُ – عَبَدَ, يَعبُدُنَصَرَ, يَنصُرُ – خَرَجَ, يَخرُجُ  (the meanings well come in shaa Allaah)
  • Chapter in Arabic is: البَابُ  (Al-Baab)
  • This Chapter is a Principle , meaning فَعَلَ, يَفعُلُ  is going to be your Principle in four types of verb  (meaning those types of verbs are going to be following the Chapter  فَعَلَ, يَفعُلُ (the same trend/combination))
  • The Chapter is made a principle because of the different kinds of verbs which follow it
  • When talking about a verb by default it is the Maadhee
  • قَالَ is on the scale of فَعَلَ, and the waaw being changed into an alif didn’t effect the scale

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

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