بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
The Linguistic meaning is Mainly: Turning / Changing
The Technical meaning: Changing/Turning the root (word) into different forms, in order to express desired meaning which aren’t expressed except through their own forms
- The sound one makes to utter a word to express the desired meanings in his heart is called لُغَة (lughah/language)- different words to express different meanings
In the Arabic language there are root words (origin/mother words) – and what is meant by the Root word here is the Verbal Noun which is called in Arabic المَصدَر (Al Masdar).
The linguistic meaning of Al Masdar: The Source
The Technical meaning: The Source of words
Always remember that there is a strong bond and relationship between the technical meaning and the linguistic meaning and the technical meaning is taken from the linguistic meaning.
Al Masdar المَصدَر
- Al Masdar is the name given to the Act itself, such as:
The act of hitting expressed in the Arabic language by the word: ضَربٌ (dharbun)
The act of eating expressed in the Arabic language by the word: أَكلٌ (aklun)
The act of drinking expressed in the Arabic language by the word: شُربٌ (shurbun)
Al Masdar is a word from which words branch out – see it as a root of a tree and the branches are words taken from the root using the same letters.
- With this root word you are going to depend on generating different forms using the same letters- meaning, every branching word is given has to have those letters which are taken from its root.
- The idea is that this root word is going to be turned into something else either by:
2- Changing the signs (Harakaat and sakanaat)
Some examples of the root word ضَربٌ (Dharbun/ act of hitting)
أَضربُ (Adribu/ I’m hitting)- Addition: Theأ hamzah in the beginning- Changing the signs: Dhaadh has a sukoon ضْ and the Raa has a kasrah رِ
ضَرَبْتُ (Dharabtu/ I hit (past))- Addition: Taa with dhammah added the end تُ – Changing the signs: Raa has a fathahرَand the Baa is saakin بْ
ضَرَبَتْ (Dharabat/ she hit)- Addition: Taa with sukoon added at the end – Changing the signs: Raa has a fathahرَand the Baa has a fathah بَ
تَضربُ (Tadhribu/ she is hitting)- Addition: Taa in the beginning تَ – Changings of the signs: Dhaadh has a sukoonضْ and the Raa has a kasrah رِ
ضَربَةٌ (Dharbatun/ a single hit)- Addition: Taa added at the end ة– Changing of the signs: Fathah on the Baa بَ
ضَرَبَات (Dharabaat/ many hits)- Addition: Alif and Taa added at the end ات – Changing of the signs: Raa has a fathah رَ
ضَاربٌ (Dhaaribun/ a hitter)- Addition Alif in the middle ا – Changing: Raa has a fathah رَ
In these examples we have changed/turned the root word which is ضَرب (Dharb) into different forms, in order to express desired meanings which aren’t expressed except through their own forms
( In sarf you are going to be given principles that will teach you how to produce different forms from one word (root word) to express the meanings you desire.)
~~~ End of Dars ~~~
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah
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