Sarf – Level 2 – Class 1

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Clarification before we begin >>>

Today we start Inshaa’Allaah Level 2 as requested. We are going to start this level considering that the students have already mastered Level One:

• How to use the verb
• Different conjugations of the verb whether maadh or mudhaari`
• The different chapters
• Everything that has to do with the three letter verb

So now Inshaa’Allaah we will base everything (coming) upon that. So we begin – putting our trust in Allaah, seeking Aid from Allaah – Bismillaah alaa barakatillaah:

Brief Recap of 3 letter verbs (الثلاثيّ)They only have six chapters:
They only have six chapters:

  1. فَعَلَ – يَفْعُلُ
  2. فَعَلَ – يَفْعِلُ
  3. فَعَلَ – يَفْعَلُ
  4. فَعِلَ – يَفْعَلُ
  5. فَعِلَ – يَفْعِلُ
  6. فَعُلَ – يَفْعُلُ

INTRODUCTION >>>

Now we begin with the 4 letter verbs (الرباعيّ)

* When it is said “thulaathiyy” or “rubaa`iyy” it is looked at from 2 perspectives – meaning; when we look at the technical terms describing the number of letters in a verb, we look at them from two perspectives:

1. According to the original state
2. According to the current state

EXAMPLE:

خَرَجَ

– We call it thulaathiyy – it is a three letter verb. This is according to its current state and its original state. It is thulaathiyy from both perspectives.
When we increase a letter to it – like adding a hamzah in the beginning we get: أَخْرَجَ
– According to the original state this is thulaathiyy because the hamzah here is an extra letter but according to the current state that it is upon we call it rubaa`iyy (because it is 4 letters).
*Ustaadh made this point because in some books a student might read that a scholar said أَخْرَجَ is ثلاثيّ and they are talking about it from the perspective of its original state, that is why they say ثلاثيّ مزيد فيه – it is thulaathiyy with an addition to it.   So it is called thulaathiyy, thulaathiyyun mazeed or rubaa`iyy. All are correct – just from different perspectives.  When you say “thulathiyy” you are talking from perspective of its original state that it was upon, and when you say rubaa`iyy you are talking about from the current state that it is upon.

*A student asked ifأَخْرَجَ is سالم (saalim).

Teacher said that the description of saalim, saheeh, or mahmooz, only falls on the original letters – it is only applied on the original letters.  Whatever is parallel to the faa, the ayn, and the laam is what could affect in the description of being saalim, not saheeh, not mahmooz etc…  When they define as-saalim, they say ما سلمت حروفه الأصليَة (maa salimat huruufuhul-asliyyah) – What had its original letters free from الهمزة (the hamzah) or حروف العلة  (huruuful `illah) or التضعيف (at-tadh`eef) (doubling).  So we can only look at saalim from one perspective – the original state – letters.  We look at this verb in the mezaanus-sarfiyy (the scale):
أَخْرَجَ على وزن أَفْعَلَ (Akhraja `alaa wazni af`ala).

And we see that the khaa’ is parallel to the faa’, raa’ is the ayn and jeem is the laam. When we look at these original letters we do not see hamzah, harf`illah or doubling – so we say it is saalim. So when you want to know whether a verb is saalim or not then look to the original letters (the letters that are parallel to the usuul- the faa’ `ayn laam.)

So if you are going to say a verb is saalim or not we must only look at it from the perspective of the original letters.

But if someone asked you if this verb is thulaathiyy or rubaa`iyy then you can say it is thulaathiyy from the perspective of its original state and rubaa`iyy from the perspective of its current state that it is upon.

Rubaa`iyy is a four letter verb whether all four letters are original or one of them is extra.  For example we take the verb:  دَحْرَجَ   it is on the scale of: فَعْلَلَ All of the letters in dahraja are original.  They are huruuful-asliyyah.  Ww cal it rubaa`iyy as both its original state and current state.  But أَخْرَجَ Akhraja is rubaa`iyy (a four letter verb) only according to its current state.

In ENGLISH terms:  If someone asked you,”is Akhraja a 4 letter verb?”  You would say it is (according to the current state it is upon) and this is valid.  Then you could say Akhraja is Kharaja with the adding of the hamzah, so Akhraja is originally a three letter verb with the hamzah that has been added to it.  Its original state is three letters:  khaa ‘- raa’ – jeem.  So if you said Akhraja is  a 3 letter verb, youwould not be wrong because this is according to its original state that it is upon.

So the thing they call Rubaa`iyy doesn’t mean it is all original letters.  They could call the four letters (which is three with one extra) Rubaa’iyy as this is the current state it is upon.

Saying that Akhraja is  Rubaa`iyy is correct as it is according to its current state and saying dahraja is rubaa`iyy is correct according to its original state.

NEW MATERIAL >>>

الثُّلَاثِي الْمَزِيد ثَلَاثَةُ أَنْوَاع  The three lettered which is added to is three types:

    1. ثُلَاثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ بِحَرْفٍ  thulaathiyyun mazeedun biharfin  (A three lettered with one added to it).
    2. ثُلَاثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ  بِحَرْفَيْن  thulaathiyyun mazeedun biharfayn (a three lettered with two added to it).
    3. ثُلَاثِيٌّ مَزِيدٌ بِثَلَاثَة thulaathiyyun mazeedun bithaalathah (a three lettered with three added to it).

So a ثلاثي thulaathiyy with one added to it we can call:  ثلاثي thulaathiyy looking at its original state or رباعي rubaa`iyy considering its current state –  after the addition. EXAMPLE: أَخْرَجَ (Akhraja) where hamzah is the one added letter.

And a ثلاثي thulaathiyy with two added to it we call: ثلاثي thulaathiyy before the addition and خُمَاسِيّ khumaasiyy (the yaa is the yaa’u-nisbah – the yaa’ of reference –  a reference to khamsah (five)) after the addition.  EXAMPLE: تَخَرَّجَ (takharraja) where taa’ and raa’ are the two extra letters.

And a ثلاثي thulaathiyy with three added to it we call ثلاثي (Before the addition) and سُدَاسِيّ   (sudaasiyy –  referenced to sittah (six)) after the addition.  EXAMPLE:  اسْتَخْرَجَ (istakhraja) where hamzah (al-wasl), seen, and taa’ are the three extra letters.

You can only add up to three extra letters to a three letter verb –  the verb does not exceed six letters –  never ever.  The verb in itself does not go more than six  –  so the most that can be added to the three letter verb are three letters.

THE CHAPTERS OF THE THULAATHIYY MAZEED >>>

According to what was mentioned in Matn binaa’ al-af`aal – The first one (meaning the three lettered with one added to it) has 3 chapters.  The second has 5 chapters and the third has 4 chapters.  And this is commonly.  We are not talking about original four letter verbs … rather we are talking about the three letter verbs with additions and we are talking about what is commonly used.

SO:
The three letttered with one added has 3 chapters … الثُّلَاثِي المَزِيد بِحَرْف لَهُ ثلاثة أبواب 
The three lettered with two added has 5 chapters الثُّلَاثِي  المَزِيد بِحَرْفَيْن له خمسة أبواب 
The three lettered with 3 added has 4 chapters الثُّلَاثِي المَزِيد بِثَلَاثَة له أربعة أبواب 

With the three lettered verbs (from level One) we took the maadhee and the mudhaari`, but with the three lettered verb which is added to,  we take the maadhee, the mudhaari` and the masdar,  With the verbs from Level One we just took the maadhee and mudhaari1 based upon the difference in it having a fixed masdar or not –  but with the three letter verb which is added to, there is agreement that they have a fixed masdar –  Basically each chapter has its fixed masdar.  So to every chapter we are going to learn a fixed masdar –  “fixed” means it is a qiyaas –  it will never change.

Whenever you find a verb that is of the first chapter, you can say it’s masdar becasue it’s masdar is fixed –  you will not have to ask -“what is its masdar?”  because the masdar will be the same (scale) for every verb of that chapter.

CHAPTER ONE >>>

(Chapter one of the four lettered verb (from the perspective of its state not its origin!)

أَفعَلَ – يُفعلُ – إفعَالاً

Its common example is:

أَكرَمَ – يُكرِمُ – إكْرَاماً

If we look at the original letters here (in this common example), we see it is taken form “karuma”  Karuma is from chapter six of the three letter verbs and all the verbs that belong to the sixth chapter are laazim.  (This is a principle:  fa`ula is always laazim).  Karuma means “was a generous person”  if we say, “karuma zaydan”  we mean Zayd is generous (his character)  he is a generous person –  All of the verbs on chapter six  ( on the scale of fa`ula)  express inborn characteristics.

If we want to turn this verb from being laazim to being mutaaddin –  if we want to say that this generosity was passed from zayd to someone else –   what do we do?

We cant add the dhammer to the end (hu) because “hu” can only be added to the muta`addee and this verb is laazim.   For example we couldn’t say:  “jalasahu”  Jalasa means “sat” and we wouldn’t say “he sat it”  we need another word to cross the laazim (he sat “on” it).  Or we couldn’t say “dhahikahu”  Dhahika means “laughed” and we wouldn’t say, “he laughed it” we would need another word to corss the laazim (he laughed “at” it).

We can say, Akalahu (he ate it) because Akala is muta`addin so it taked the dhameer.

Now we cant add Hu to Karuma because karuma is laazim -It cannot take a receiver it only takes a doer because it is expressing a verb which does not pass over to something else…. but there is another way to turn into a muta`addin and that is by adding a hamzah –  by bringing it on this chapter here  – the scale for chapter 1 of the rubaa’iyy – Af`ala:

  • Add the hamzah at the beginning with a fathah
  • give the ayn a fathah as well because the ayn of this chapter is fixed on the fathah, (it doesnt have three possibilities like in the three letter verbs)

Akrama means, “was generous to someone else”   – now we can add the dhammeer and say “akramahu” because we have made it muta`addin by adding the hamzah.

SOME MORE EXAMPLES of LAAZIM THAT CAN BE TURNED TO MUTA`ADIN WITH THIS CHAPTER >>>

جَلَسَjalasa (he sat)  —>  أَجْلَسَAjlasa (he made sit )

خَرَجَkharaja (he went out) —> أَخْرَجَAkhraja (he made go out – he extracted, he removed, he kicked out –  all the broad meanings can be used)  If you want to say “I took out”  you say  أَخْرَجْتُAkhrajtu –  add the taa of the doer … and the same way you conjugate the three letter verbs you do the same here.  If you said:  أَخْرَجهَAkhrajahu – it means, “He took him out.” In the Qur’aan:

رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ عُدْنَا فَإِنَّا ظَالِمُونَ  -107/23

ضَحِكَdhahika (he laughed) —> أَضْحَكَAdh-haka (he made laugh)  Adh-hakahu – means He made him laugh.  Adh-dhaktuhu means I made him laugh.

Adhhaktu –  I made laugh

Adhhakta – you (m) made laugh

Adhhakti –  you (f) made laugh

Adhhaktum –  you (group) made laugh

Adhhaka –  he made laugh

Adhhakat –  she made laugh

Adhhakaa –  they both made laugh

Adhhakoo –  they all made laugh

Adhhakna  –  they all ( females) made laugh

You can add “hu” at the end of all of the maadhee forms above.

It is the same as you would do with the three letter verbs.  You can bring these verbe on the same forms

One of the meanings of this chapter (af`ala – yuf`ilu – if`aalaa) is “making”  and there are many meanings for this chapter but this is the first one we will learn.  When you add the meaning of “making” to a verb which is laazim you turn into a muta`addin.

We are only taking the maddhee now and teacher will give us the mudhaari` (conjugations)  later because the mudhaari` has a story.

– End of Dars –

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

Screen Shots >>>

2 thoughts on “Sarf – Level 2 – Class 1

  1. 'ilmul'arabiyyah December 14, 2012 at 6:15 am Reply

    Most awaited classes..
    Alhamdulilllah..
    Are these classes continuation of the old series of classes or are these in continuation of the “Understanding the Principles-arabic” series ?

    • sarf4sisters December 14, 2012 at 11:53 am Reply

      As-salaamu alaykum wa baarakallaahu feekum
      The Sarf Level Two classes are the next level from the old batches (Sarf Level One and Ustaadh’s E-book) and not part of the Establishing the Principles Course (Arabic Level One – Tasreeful-`Iziyy).

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