Sarf – Level 2 – Class 2

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Notes  >>>

Since we are going to mention here a fixed مصدر  for every Chapter, we are going to name the Chapter after its مصدر . Therefore we call this Chapter : بَابُ الإفعَل (Baabul if’aal)

* Important Principle: حَرفُ المُضَارَعَة  (harful Mudaara’ah) in الرباعي  (Ar-Rubaa’iyy) gets a dhammah, unlike the rest (i.e الثلاثي وَمَا فَوقَ الربَاعي (At-Thulaathiyyu wamaa fawqar rubaa’iyy) *

  • For example: Chapter one of الثلاثي المزيد بحرف واحد  (Ath-thulaathiyyul mazeedu biharfin waahid) is: أَفعَلَ – يُفعلُ – إفعَالاً
  • With the three lettered verb (from chapter 1 – 6) we did not mention the Masdar (next to the Maadh and the Mudaari’), because they are not fixed upon one Masdar which could be made upon a Qiyaas (a principle). Regarding the increased   ثلاثي (thulaathiyy) the scholars of Sarf agreed upon those chapters having fixed Masaadir.
  • Notice that the ‘Ayn on this chapter is fixed on one state (fathah on the Maadh and kasrah on the Mudaari’)
  • الثلاثي وما فوق الرباعي  : The three lettered and whatever is above the four lettered – (meaning only the ثُلاثي  ,the خُمَاسي  (khumaasiyy) and the سُدَاسي (sudaasiyy) get a fathah on harful Mudaara’ah and on the رُباعي  it gets a dhammah)
  • Example:  خَرَجَ – يَخرُجُ– Here harful mudaara’ah is the ‘yaa’ and it has a fathah (and this can be      considered as a Qiyaas (a principle to be followed) in the Mudaari’ of the Thulaathiyy). And this is with all verbs except the رُباعي (whether it is from the aspect of its original state or from its current state)

What we notice in this Chapter is that the Mudaari’ consists of four letters and that theهمزة was dropped,why?

We already know that the Major Principle of the Arabs is: التمَاسُ الخفة (iltimaasul khiffah) ‘Seeking lightness in speech.’

If we would take the hamzah as one of harful Mudaara’ah and add it to the verb it would be heavy, so the hamzah  was dropped, because it will cause heaviness in speech

  • The Mudaari’ is considered  increasing a letter to the Maadh – And if you look to the Maadh of this Chapter أفعَلَ  you can see that it has four letters, therefore if we increase the letter in the Mudaari’ should be on five letter, but here it is not.  As for example the Mudaari’ of أَخرَجَ should be    ي + أ + خرج = يُؤَخرجُ (by keeping the letters of the Maadh and adding the letter of the mudaara’ah)
  • Some might say: How about the other three letters  ‘ن, ي, ت’ of the Mudaara’ah they don’t cause any heaviness when being added to the verb only the hamzah does?  They have done the same with the rest of the letters to unite the process
  • Sometimes the Arabs speak out what should be originally used, but was later abandoned. And the Major benefit of this which they do sometimes, is interpreting the process of formation (meaning: how did this form get to be used in this way). As for example, a poet said: فَإنهُ أهلٌ لأَن يُؤَكرَما  (Fa-innahu ahlun li-an yu-akramaa / He is worthy of being generous to) and this is of the Rajas (style of poetry) – Here you can see that the poet used the verb  يُؤَكرَم in its original form
    • أهل : someone who is worthy /someone who is fit for something/ someone who deserves something
    • Some might say why does ‘aynul kalimah (the raa) يُؤَكرَم  has a fathah and not a kasrah?  This because the verb was changed to the passive (and this you will learn in grammar in shaa Allaah)
    • With the poets (meaning the Arabs) we either mean the pre-Islam  الجَاهليون  (Al-Jaahiliyyoon) or  the pre-Islam and Islam المُخَضرَمُون  (Al-Mukhadhramoon) – and those two categories by the unanimous agreement of the Scholars are considered as a source of evidences concerning the Arabic language. (This will be explained in the higher levels in shaa Allaah)

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

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