Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 21

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

 

Small Review  >>>

The first Chapter is فَعَلَ – يَقعُلُ

  • Here the ‘ayn of the Maadh is maftoohah (has a fathah) and the ‘ayn of the Mudaari’ is madhmoomah (has a dhammah)
  • Qiyaas: is basing something on something else, and here it is an example that falls under a principle or is based upon a certain principle (patron)- And if it is not based upon it we depend on what we hear (Samaa’)
  • There are three types of verbs which this Chapter is a Qiyaas.

Notes >>>

Benefit: The scholars used to mention only a single example to each chapter, one for the Laazim and the other for the Muta’add, this is because they wanted to make it easy for the beginner, and not complicate it for him in the beginning of his journey.

This example was treated later on as a name given to this chapter

For Chapter one فَعَل , يَقعُلُ they gave one example for the Muta’add which is : نَصَرَ , يَنصُرُ  and one for the Laazim: خَرَجَ , يَخرُجُSo they said: نَصَرَ is the common example of the muta’add and  خَرَجَis the common example of the Laazim.

  • They used one single example to not complicate it for the beginner, so that it is easy for him to refer back to the chapter by just mentioning the common example. This  because of two benefits: To not complicate for the beginner and To refer the verb to the desired Chapter in the briefest way possible
  • As for example:
    • إياكَ نَعبُدُ  – They want to explain to you what the verb  نَعبُدُ  means, so you find the interpreter of the Quraan (in Arabic), saying: عَبَدَ is like نَصَرَ  ‘عَبَدَ كَنَصَرَ– Here he is trying to tell you that عَبَدَ is of the same chapter as نَصَرَ  and by knowing that you will know that its Mudaari’ is on the scale of يَفعُلُ  and that it is Muta’add.
    • وَلكن لا يَشعُرُون– The verb شَعَرَ is like خَرَجَشَعَرَ كَخَرَجَ’ – By this common example given you know that it belongs to the same Chapter and type as خَرجَ, so it belongs to Chapter One شَعَرَ, يَشعُرُ  and it is Laazim.
    • This means that we are going to use a common example for each chapter as a reference point to which chapter it (the verb) belongs to and whether it is Laazim or Muta’add
    • نَصَرَ : Gave victory to – خَرَجَ : exited
    • شَعَرَ : He felt (to feel)
    • كَ: like/ such as (a resemblance)
    • نَصَرَ and  خَرَجَ  are Samaa’iyy, because there is no certain principle to follow (we are not basing it upon a principle)- And here what made us judge that it belongs to chapter one is because the Arabs said it like that.

Vocabulary of Chapter One (Samaa’)

عَبَدَ , يَعبُدُ (‘Abada, Ya’budo)

To worship (he worshipped, he worships (is worshipping))         

  • عَبَدَهُ: He worshipped Him (muta’addin)

رَزَقَ , يَرزُقُ  (Razaqa, Yarzuqu)

To provide (He provided, He provides (is providing) )

  • Muta’addin

تَرَكَ , يَترُكُ  (Taraka, Yatruku)

To leave (he left, he leaves (is leaving))

  • Muta’addin

خَلَقَ , يَخلُقُ (Khalaqa, Yakhluqu)

To create (He created, He creates (is creating))

  • Muta’addin

 

~~~

Vocabulary of Chapter One (Qiyaas) 

This First type of verbs  which this Chapter is a Qiyaas to:

When ‘Aynul Kalimah is a Waaw ‘و’

قَال , يَقُولُ   (Qaala, Yaqoolu)

To say (he said, he says (is saying))

  • قَالَه , يَقُولُة  By connecting the ‘ha’ to the verb you know that it is muta’add, And here the saying necessitate ‘someone who is saying’ and ‘something which is said’. This muta’add could also be used as a laazim.
  • Sometimes they use the muta’add in the same way the laazim is used for a reason. That reason is making the muta’add contain the meaning of a verb which is laazim. (this is hard to explain for now, this will be learned in Balaaghah)

عاذ , يَعُوذُ (‘Aatha, Ya’oothu)

To seek refuge (he sought refuge, he seeks refuge (is seeking))      

كَانَ , يَكُونُ (Kaana, Yakoonu)

To be (he was, he is)

قَامَ , يَقُومُ (Qaama, Yaqoomu)

To stand up /raise/straight up (he stood/ he stands (is standing))

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله 

 

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 21-1

Tasreeful 'izziy 21-2

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