Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 23

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Small Review >>>

  • The hamzah ‘أ’  is used for the one speaking for himself

The noon ‘ن’  is used for the one speaking for himself and others

The yaa ‘ي’  is used for the one spoken about

The taa ‘ت’  is used for the one spoken to

Notes >>>

Whether  مَاض or مُضَارع  the conjugations are broken into three groups:

1-      The speaker  المُتَكَلم (Al-Mutakallim)

2-      The spoken to المُخَاطَب (Al-Mukhaatab)

3-      The spoken about الغَائب (Al-Ghaa-ib)

  • الغَائب  Literally means ‘The Absent’, but this doesn’t mean that the one spoken about is necessary absent, but here they mean the absent in speech .
  • For the first group the verb can be turned into  ‘two’ , For the second group into  ‘five’ and for the third group into ‘five’ – This makes 12
  • هُمَا is counted as one and it breaks into two (masculine and feminine)

Conjugation of the Maadhee >>>

When referring the verb to yourself ‘I / أنَا’ (Al-Mutakallim) :

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb  فَعَلَت

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah فَعَلَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) فَعَلْتُ

*Notice: The laam of the verb is always going to be silenced, when a letter expressing the doer comes along, having a harakah*

  • فَعَلتُ – This ‘taa’ expresses the doer and it has a harakah تُ , so here we silence the laam of the verb

Do the same with every verb when referring to yourself, As for example:

نَصَرَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb نَصَرَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah نَصَرَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) نَصَرْتُ

 

عَبَدَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb عَبَدَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah عَبَدَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) عَبَدْتُ

 

رَزَقَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb رَزَقَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah رَزَقَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) رَزَقْتُ

 

تَرَكَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb تَرَكَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah تَرَكَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) تَرَكْتُ

 

خَلَقَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb خَلَقَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah خَلَقَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) خَلَقْتُ

 

خَرَجَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb خَرَجَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah خَرَجَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) خَرَجْتُ

 

كَفَرَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb كَفَرَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah كَفَرَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) كَفَرْتُ

 

شَعَرَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb شَعَرَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah شَعَرَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) شَعَرْتُ

 

سَجَدَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb سَجَدَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah سَجَدَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) سَجَدْتُ

 

نَظَرَ

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’  at the end of the verb نَظَرَت 

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah نَظَرَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) نَظَرْتُ

  • نَصَرَ : He gave victory – And it is for the غَائب (Ghaa-ib) ‘he’ – نَصَرتُ : I gave victory
  • The laam of the verb (laamul kalimah) means: The last original letter of the verb
  • فَعَلَ: He did
  • خَرَجَ : He exited
  • فَعَلَتُ (fa’alatu) having four harakaat in a row is heavy and that is why they dropped the harakah from the last letter (laamul kalimah) so it became فَعَلْتُ (fa’altu)
  • This ‘taa’ تُ is called The taa of the Doer, expressed in Arabic تَاءُ الفَاعل (Taa-ul Faa’il)
  • عَبَدَ : He worshipped , عَبَدتُ : I worshipped
  • رَزَقَ : He provided , رَزَقتُ : I provided
  • تَرَكَ : He left , تَرَكتُ: I left
  • خَلَقَ : He created, خَلَقتُ : I created
  • خَرَجَ: He exited (went out), خَرَجتُ : I exited (went out)
  • كًفَرَ: He disbelieved, كَفَرتُ : I disbelieved (like the shaytan says, which is mentioned in the Quraan [14:44])
  • شَعَرَ: He felt, شَعَرتُ: I felt
  • سَجَدَ: He prostrated , سَجَدتُ : I prostrated
  • نَظَرَ: He looked, نَظَرتُ : I looked

When referring the verb to yourself and others – instead of ‘تُ’ you put ‘نَا’ – We/ نَحنُ  (Al-Mutakallim)

1st step: Add the ‘naa’ ‘نَا’  at the end of the verb  فَعَلَنَا

2nd step: Silence the Laam of the verb (laamul kalimah) فَعَلْنَا

  • فَعَلنَا – This ‘naa’ expresses the doer and it has a harakah نَا , so here we silence the laam of the verb
  • تُ, نَا, تَ,تِ, تُمَا, تُم, تُنAll of these attached letters (Dhamaa-ir) to the verb expresses the doer and what they have in common is having a harakah.

There are two cases where four harakaat don’t come in a row :

1-      In a single word

2-      In whatever is in the power of a single word

What is in the power of a single word:

One thing: A verb + A word expressing the doer

  • In a row meaning, one after the other
  • Example of a single word: نَمْلَةٌ , قَرْيَةٌ , مِسْكِين, زَلزَلَ
  • فَعَلْتُ  these are two words put together, the verb فَعَل and the noun  تُ– And it is in the power of a single word, because it is a verb attached to another word expressing the doer
  • A verb attached to another word  which expresses the doer is considered in the power of a single word, because a verb isn’t imagined without its doer

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziy 23-1Tasreeful 'izziy 23-2Tasreeful 'izziy 23-3

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