Sarf – Level 2 – Class 4

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله وحده  – الصلاة والسلام على من لا نبي بعده وعلى آله وصحبه, أما بعد

– Topic for today: The meanings which this chapter is used for –

بَابُ الإفعَلَ

This chapter has different meanings and the first meaning which this chapter is used for is التعدية (at-ta`diyyah). At-ta`diyyah contains the meaning of “making.”  The same conjugations that were done with the thulaathiyy are also done to the rubaa`iyy with no difference:

  أَخْرَجْتُ-أُخْرِجُ

أَخْرَجْنَا -نُخْرِجُ

أَخْرَجْتَ – تُخْرِجُ

أَخْرَجْتِ – تُخْرِجِينَ

أَخْرَجْتُمَا -تُخْرِجَانِ

أَخْرَجْتُمْ – تُخْرِجُونَ

أَخْرَجْتُنَّ – تُخْرِجْنَ

أَخْرَجَ – يُخْرِجُ

أَخْرَجَتْ – تُخْرِجُ

أَخْرَجَا – يُخْرِجَانِ

أَخْرَجَتَا – تُخْرِجَانِ

أَخْرَجُوا – يُخْرِجُونَ

أَخْرَجْنَ  – يُخْرِجْنَ

The only differences that come are when حرف العلة (harful-`illah) is involved like: أَقَامَ – يُقِيمَ  (aqaama –  yuqeema).  Here there are changes that occur due to some morphological principles, such as when harful-`illah has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah then harful-`illah is changed into an alif.  It depends where the harful-`illah falls, what ruling it gets and what it is turned to according to the different principles we have learned before in Level One. We shall – Inshaa’Allaah – come across some of those conjugations which need and neccesitate a changing to the apparent form of the verb due to some morphological principles involved.

First Meaning >>>

1) التعدية (at-ta`diyyah). It means crossing what does not cross –  turning the verb into a muta`ddin. It turns the doer into a receiver by way of the added hamzah.  In this chapter we use verbs which were originally laazim but by adding the hamzah we turned it into a muta`ddin.  We will focus on Surah Al- Baqarah since it is the biggest suurah and has many verbs with which we can practice and easier when doing homeworks etc.  The Prophet (sallallaahu`alayhi was-sallam) said:

فإن أخذها بركة وتركها حسرة ولا تستطيعها البطلة

(taking Suurah Al Baqarah is a barakah and leaving it is a problem and the wizards and sorcerers can’t withstand it (stand in front of it).

Allaah Ta`Aalaa said:

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ – 2:3

  – مِنْ أَقَامَ – يُقِيمُ  (min aqaama – yuqeemu)  It is from aqaama – yuqeemu.(remember the only time that the letter of the mudhaari` gets a dhammah is when it is of the four letter verb.  The three letter verb is qaama which means, “stood” or “straightened up” (in itself).

So if Qaama is “straightened up in itself”  then adding the hamzah changes the meaning to “he made straight, or he set up right, he straightened up (something).  It now gives the meaning of someone else making the straightening up. *You don’t necessarily have to say “making” – it is just to clarify the meaning, whether the receiver of the action is a person or a thing.

–  يُقِيمُونَ  (yuqeemuuna) is on the scale of يفعلون so it means “they set up straight.” – what did they set up straight? The prayer. They set upright the prayer. This means that they prayed with the conditions and the obligations.

Teacher asked what is the benefit of this statement? يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ (Yuqeemuunas-salaah) It is that they prayed correctly – they didn’t just pray يُصلّون (yusalluuna) but they prayed correctly –  in the way that is accepted by Allaah.  This is the beautiful difference between “yuqeemuun”  and “yusalluun”.    When it is said, “Yusalluun”  – it does not neccesarily include the meaning of  “yuqeemuun.”   But when He said, “yuqeemuunas-salaah,” it includes only the meaning which is: “they set up their prayer straight right –  they prayed correctly.”   We say: يجعلونها قائمةً Yaj`aluunahaa qaa’imatan. They make it set up straight and right.

We say for example: أَقَامَ زَيْدٌالعِوَجَ (Aqaama Zaydunil-`iwaja). “al-`iwaj” is the bending – something bent or crooked. This means then, “Zayd straightened the bending.”

  • Zaydun is فاعل (faa`il)
  • Al `iwaja is مفعول به (mafuulun-bihi).

“al-`iwaja” could be used to generally describe the defect.  Or it could be said:أَقَامَ زَيْدٌ الخلل  (Zayd fixed the defect).  Because “straightening up” a defect is fixing it.  We put a dhammah on Zayd  because Zayd is the doer.  And we put the fathah on Al-Khalala because it is the receiver.

There are four meanings that could be understood from the saying of Allaah يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ   but we will suffice ourselves with this one meaning which is setting upright the prayer.

Conjugating Aqaama in the Maadhee

I made straight – أَقَمْتُ

If you want to refer the verb to yourself you add the taa’ of the doer  تاء الفاعل (taa’ul-faa`il).  And you silence the لام الكلمة (laamul-kalimah).  Now since we have the alif in the middle and the alif is never vowelled,  we end up having the meeting of two non-vowelled letters. التقاء الساكنين (Iltiqaa’us-saakinayn).  When two suukuns meet we look at the first saakin and if it is harful-`illah (in this case it is an alif)  we look to the letter before it – if the letter before it is mutaharrik and if the harakah suits the harful-illah (in this case it is a fathah which suits the alif) then we drop the harful`illah.  * This harakah that suits the dropped harful`illah is a proof of the letter that was dropped.  If the first saakin was a waaw then the letter before it has to have a dhammah and if the first saakin was a yaa’ then the letter before it would have to have a kasrah.

So now we know that if laamul kalimah was silenced then we drop the alif in the rest of the forms which necissitate that the laamul kalimah gets silenced.  Whenever a letter expressing the doer gets attached to a verb then we silence the last letter of the verb and when we silence the last letter of the verb then we drop the alif.

we made straight – أَقَمْنَا

you (m) made straight -أَقَمْتَ

you (f) made straight – أَقَمْتِ

you two made straight -أَقَمْتُما

you all made straight -أَقَمْتُمْ

you all (f) made straight – أَقَمْتُنَّ

he made straight – أَقَامَ

she made straight – أَقَامَتْ

The alif remains here because the meem is not silenced.  AN EXAMPLE: أَقَامَتْ هِنْدٌ الصَّلاةَ  (Aqaamat Hindunis-Salaata) –  Hind straightened up her prayer, – Hind prayed a sound prayer    –  this is based upon turning the laazim (qaama) into a muta`addin.  But if we drop the hamzah and reverse it –  we cannot say Qaamat Hindunis salaata because qaama is laazim. so if we took away the hamzah then we should also take away the receiver –  since qaama is no longer muta`addin.  So here the word which was the receiver (as-salaata) goes back to being a doer (as-salaatu).  We are reversing the process but keeping the meaning.  If we said Qaamat Hidun it would change the whole meaning –  it would mean: Hind stood up.

they (2m) made straight -أَقَامَا

they (2f) made straight -أَقَامَتَا

they all made straight – أَقَامُوا

they all (f) made straight – أَقَمْنَ

teacher gave examples from Qur’aan of these conjugations.  Such as 9/18  and 9/11

وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ – 9:18

فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ – 9:11

وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ – 2:227

Next class is conjugating the mudhaari` which is أُقْوِمُ (uqwimu) on the scale of  أُفْعِلُ (uf`ilu)…

والله تعالى أعلم … الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

transcribed by Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah

Screen Shots >>>

S2_4.1

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