Sarf – Level 2 – Class 7

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

Small Review >>>

One of the meanings this Chapter gets is  التَّعدِيَة (At-Ta’diyyah) ‘The Crossing’ and it contains the meaning of ‘making’

Notes >>>

Another meaning for which this Chapter is used is:

  • Entering something Time wise or Place wise  –  الدُّخُولُ فِي الشَّيءِ زَمَانا أو مَكَانا

Entering a time or a place: When you want to point out that the doer has entered the place or time from which those original letters are taken.

Steps on how to bring this type to this Chapter:

1st : Look at a Noun given as a name to a Time or a Place

2nd : You undress this word from any Extra Letters

3rd : You use the Original Letters, to bring them on this Chapter (form)

Examples:

  • مِصر  (Misr/Egypt)

1st step:  It is a Place

2nd step:  مِصر  has no Extra letters , so we leave it as it is – The Meem ‘م  ’ , Saad ‘ص ’ and ‘ر ’ are all Original letters

3rd step: Bringing the Original letters of the word to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning: أمصَرَ  , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

 

  • العِرَاق  (‘Iraaq/Iraq)

1st step:  It is a Place

2nd step:  العِرَاق  has three Extra letters, the Alif ‘ ا ’ , Laam ‘ ل ’ and Alif ‘ ا ’- And the Original letters are the ‘Ayn ‘ع ’, Raa ‘ر ’ and Qaaf ‘ق

3rd step: Bringing the Original letters of the word to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning:أعرَقَ  , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

 

  • الشَّام  (Ash-Shaam) *

1st step:  It is a Place

2nd step:  الشَّام  has two Extra letters, the Alif ‘ ا ’ (first one) and Laam ‘ ل ’ – And the original letters are the ‘Ayn ‘ع ’, Raa ‘ر ’ and Qaaf ‘ق’   has no Extra letters, because the least you can find a word

3rd step: Bringing the Original letters of the word to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning: أشأَمَ  , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

*Side Note: الشّام  was originally الشَّأم, but because of excessive usage and it being heavy on the tongue they changed the Hamzah into an Alif- As known ‘Arabs seek lighness in speech’

 

  • نَجد  (Najd/ A place in Saudi Arabia) –

1st step:  It is a Place

2nd step:  نَجد  has no Extra letters, because the least you can find a word

3rd step: Bringing the Original letters of the word to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning: أنجَدَ  , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

 

  • صَحرَاء  (Sahraa-/Desert)

1st step:  It is a Place

2nd step:  صَحرَاء  has two Extra letters, The Alif ‘ ا ’ and Hamzah ‘ ء ’ – And the Original letters are the Saad ‘ص ’ , Haa ‘ ح ’ and Raa ‘ ر

3rd step: Bringing the Original letters of the word to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning: أصحَرَ  , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

 

  • صَبَاح  (Sabaah/Morning)

1st step:  It is a Time

2nd step:  صَبَاح  has one Extra letter , The Alif ‘ ا ’ – And the Original letters are the Saad ‘ص ’, Baa ‘ ب ’ and Haa ‘ ح

3rd step: Bringing the Meem, Saad and Raa (original letters of the word) to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning: أصبَحَ  , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

 

  • مَسَاء  (Masaa-/Evening) –

1st step:  It is a Time

2nd step:   مَسَاء has one Extra letter , The Alif ‘ ا ’ – And the Original letters are the Meem  ‘م ’, Seen ‘ س ’ and Hamzah ‘ء

3rd step: Bringing the Meem, Saad and Raa (original letters of the word) to this Chapter (form) by adding a hamzah in the beginning: أمسَى  * , which is on the scale of أفعَلَ

* Side Note: The Alif in أمسى  is referring to the Hamzah, because there is a principle that says: When the hamzah is the fourth letter or above and it is on the edge it is turned into an Alif 

  • So basically we look to the Noun given as a name to a Time or Place and undress it from any extra letters to be only left with original letters then we bring these letters on this Chapter (form)
  • What we are using now to form and make up this Chapter are Nouns for this type of meaning, because we want to express that the doer has entered a Place or Time – And to express that we are going to use a Name of a Time or a Name of a Place.
  • Here we are not going to look to the three letter verb and add the hamzah to it , like with  التعدية , but we go to a Noun given as a Name either to a Time or a Place and take it and free it from any extra letter (We free it so that it will be Mujarrad / نُجَرِّدُهُ لِيَكُونَ مُجَرَّدا) – and bring the original letters and add in the beginning a hamzah to make it of this Chapter and the scale of أَفعَلَ
  • The hamzah in this Chapter is an extra letter changing the form of the original word to a new form (with an extra meaning)

أَمصَرَ  (Amsara) : He entered Egypt

أعرَقَ (A’raqa): He entered Iraq

أشأمَ (As-ama): He entered Ash-shaam

أنجَدَ (Anjada): He entered Najd

أصحَرَ (Ashara): He entered the desert

أصبَحَ (Asbaha): He entered the morning

أمسَى (Amsaa): He entered the evening

  • When using أفعَلَ  for this meaning it is Laazim and not Muta’add
  • Example:  أعرَقَ  (He entered Iraq) , this verb needs only a doer and no receiver –  أعرَقَ زَيدٌ  : Zayd entered Iraq – The place where Zayd has entered is already expressed in the verb and therefore it doesn’t  need a receiver (the place of entering)
  • It is as if we have fashioned the name of a Place or a Time to give the same meaning as دَخَلَ (dakhala/entered) – Example:
    • دَخَلَ زَيدٌ العِرَاقَ (Verb + doer + receiver): Zayd entered Iraq – أعرَقَ زَيدٌ  (Verb + doer)-: Zayd entered Iraq – Here دَخَل + العِرَاق  get the same meaning as أعرَقَ  (as if they are merged together and the receiver is taken as a meaning to the verb, which makes the receiver no longer there)
    • دَخَلَ  can be used Laazim or Muta’add
    • أمسَينَا وأمسَى المُلكُ للهِ  (Amsaynaa wa amsal mulku lilaahi)أمسَينَا: We have entered the evening
    • فَسُبحَانَ اللهِ حِينَ تُمسُونَ وحِينَ تُصبِحُونَ  (Fasubhaana Allaahi heena tumsoona waheena tusbihoona) – Glorify Allaah when you (all) enter the evening and when you (all) enter the morning – تُمسُونَ : You (all) enter the evening

Exercise >>>

Question and Anwer

Exercise 1:

Q: What does أَصبَحتِ  mean?

A: You (f) entered the morning

Q: What does أَمسَيتُم   mean?

A: You (all) entered the evening

Q: What does أَصبَحنَ   mean?

A: They (f) entered the morning

Q: What does تُصبِحنَ   mean?

A: You all (f) enter the morning

Exercise 2: (mentioning the dhameer of the verb)

Q: أعرَقُوا ?

A: هُم

Q: أحسَنُوا ?

A: هُم

Q: أشأمنَ ?

A: هُنَّ

 

Q: أَصبَحتُنَّ ?

A: أنتُنَّ

Q: أنجَدتُنَّ ?

A: أَنتُنَّ

Q: أنجَدنَ ?

A: هُنَّ

Q: أصحَرَتْ ?

A:هِيَ

Q:أَصحَرتَ  ?

A:أنتَ

Q: أصحَرتِ ?

A:أنتِ

Q:أصحَرَتَا  ?

A:هُمَا

Q: أشأمَا ?

A: هُمَا

Q:يُصحِرُونَ  ?

A:هُم

Q: تُصحِرُونَ ?

A: أنتم

Q: يُصحِرَانِ ?

A:هُمَا 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Sarf level 2 - 7-1Sarf level 2 7-2

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