Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 24

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Review >>>

The first conjugation of the Maadh, which is referring to the single speaker (I/أنا), and it is done  by three steps:

1st step: Add the ‘taa’ ‘ت’ , which is called تَاءُ الفَاعِل at the end of the verb  فَعَلَت

2nd step: Give that ‘taa’ ‘ت’  a dhammah فَعَلَتُ

3rd step: Silence the laam of the verb (Laamul kalimah) فَعَلْتُ

  • You can also say it the other way around by silencing first the Laam (laamul kalimah) and then add the taa (of the doer) and add the dhammah- But the chosen order is to clarify that the laam of the kalimah was silence because of the entering of the taa

There are two cases where four harakaat don’t come in a row:

1-      In a single word

2-      In whatever is in the power of a single word

  • That which is considered ‘in the power of a single word’ is the verb and the noun expressing the doer
  • Example: A single word: أَسْتَغْفِرُ – In the power of one word: ضَرَبْتُ
  • This excludes, the verb with other then the doer attached to it (i.e. تَاءُ التَّأنِيثِ السَّاكِنَة) – And this is like ضَرَبَتَا 

When referring to yourself and others instead of ‘تُ’ you put ‘نَا’ – We/ نَحنُ  – and you take the same steps

1st step: Add the ‘naa’ ‘نَا’, which is called نَا الفَاعِلِين (noon with a fathah and the alif after it)  at the end of the verb  نَصَرَنَا

2nd step: Silence the Laam of the verb (laamul kalimah) نَصَرْنَا

  • نَصَرَ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ  (Nasara ‘alaa wazni Fa’ala/ Nasara is on the scale of Fa’ala)
  • نَصَرَ : He gave victory , نَصَرتُ : i gave victory, نَصَرنَا: we gave victory
  • نا referring to yourself and some else (two or more)

Notes >>>

An example from the Quran of ‘The single speaker’ in the Maadh

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ – 51:56

I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone).

  • خَلَقتُ: I created
  • By knowing the principle of a verb having an extra letter after it and that extra letter is a taa with a dhammah  ‘تُ’ you know that the one involved is A Single Speaker.

Exercise >>>

Exercise 1:

Question and Answer

Q: What does عَبَدَ mean?

A: He worshipped

Q: What does عَبَدتُ  mean?

A: I worshipped

Q: What does عَبَدنَا  mean?

A: We worshipped

Q: What does رَزَقَ  mean?

A: He provided

Q: How do you say: I provided?

A: رَزَقتُ

 

Q: How do you say: We provided?

A : رَزَقنَا

Q: What does  تَرَكَ  mean?

A: He left

Q: How do you say: We left?

A: تَرَكنَا

Q: How do you say: He left?

A: تَرَكَ

Q: What does تَرَكتُ  mean?

A: I left

Q: What does خَرَجَ  mean?

A: He exited

Q: What does  يَخرُجُ  mean?

A: He exits (he is exiting)

Q: What does يَنصُرُ  mean?

A: He gives victory (he helps)

Q: What does يَعبُدُ  mean?

A: He worships

Q: What does خَرَجتُ  mean?

A: I exited

Q: How do you say: We left?

A: خَرَجنَا

 

Q: What does كَفَرَ mean?

A: He disbelieved

 

  • عَبدَ , رَزَقَ  you have to give the whole meaning of these kind of verbs by adding the doer: ‘he’ worshipped, ‘He’ provided etc
  • رَزَقَ عَلَى وَزنِ فَعَلَ (Razaqa ‘alaa wazni Fa’ala / Razaqa is on the scale of Fa’ala) – Andفَعَلَ  is a Maadh (past verb) and it the one involved is ‘he’
  • When you sayرَزَقَتُ  (razaqatu)you have not silenced Laamul kalimah- Here you should silence it (an easy way to do it is by putting a pause after the verb and then add the noun to it-example:  Razaq  tu )
  • رَزَقنَا  – here the noon is connected to an alif نا (naa) so when pronoucing you should prolong it, otherwise it will say رَزَقنَ and this has another meaning, it refers to a group of females (when you talk about a group of females)
  • The main example of the Maadh is فَعَلَ  (he did)and the main example for the Mudaari’ is يَفعُلُ (he does)  
  • نَصَرَ  : he gave victory , يَنصُرُ : he gives victory عَبَدَ: he worshipped ,يَعبُدُ: he worships  etc

 

Exercise 2:

Pointing out the verbs from the Verses and the Ahadeeth ustaadh reads

Verse 1:

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّىٰ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَحْدَهُ إِلَّا قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ وَمَا أَمْلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ اللَّـهِ مِن شَيْءٍ  رَّبَّنَا عَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ – 60:4

Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim (Abraham) and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred for ever, until you believe in Allah Alone,” except the saying of Ibrahim (Abraham) to his father: “Verily, I will ask for forgiveness (from Allah) for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah .” Our Lord! In You (Alone) we put our trust, and to You (Alone) we turn in repentance, and to You (Alone) is (our) final Return,

  • كَفَرنَا : We disbelieved

Verse 2:

لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ مِنَ اللَّـهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُهْلِكَ الْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَأُمَّهُ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَلِلَّـهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَاللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ – 72-5

Surely, they have disbelieved who say: “Allah is the Messiah [‘Iesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary).” But the Messiah [‘Iesa (Jesus)] said: “O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode . And for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers) there are no helpers

  • كَفَرَ: he disbelieved (the meaning of the verb taken out of the text)

Verse 3:

وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّـهُ بِبَدْرٍ وَأَنتُمْ أَذِلَّةٌ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ – 3:123

 And Allah has already made you victorious at Badr, when you were a weak little force. So fear Allah much [abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden and love Allah much, perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained] that you may be grateful.

  • نَصَرَكُمنَصَرَ : He gave victory  (extract the verb )

Verse 4:

قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ قُلِ اللَّـهُ وَإِنَّا أَوْ إِيَّاكُمْ لَعَلَىٰ هُدًى أَوْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ 34:24

Say (O Muhammad to these polytheists, pagans, etc.) “Who gives you provision from the heavens and the earth?” Say: “Allah, And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in a plain error.”

  • يَرزُقُكُميَرزُقُ : He provides

Verse 5:

مَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا عَمَّا أُنذِرُوا مُعْرِضُونَ 46:3

The revelation of the Book (this Qur’an) is from Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.

  • خَلَقنَا : We created

Verse 6:

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ قَالَ رَبِّ نَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ – 28:21

So he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: “My Lord! Save me from the people who are Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)!”

  • فَخَرَجَخَرَجَ : he exited

وَجَدتُّهَا وَقَوْمَهَا يَسْجُدُونَ لِلشَّمْسِ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ فَهُمْ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ – 27:24

“I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaitan (Satan) has made their deeds fair-seeming to them, and has barred them from (Allah’s) Way, so they have no guidance,”

  • يَسجُدُون يَسجُدُ : he prostrates

Verse 7:

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ – 15:26

And indeed, We created man from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.

  • خَلَقنَا : We created

Verse 8:

وَالْجَانَّ خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن قَبْلُ مِن نَّارِ السَّمُومِ – 15:27

And the jinn, We created aforetime from the smokeless flame of fire.

  • خَلَقنَاه خَلَقنَا: We created

Verse 9:

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ – 15:28

 And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am going to create a man (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.

  • قَال : He said

Vers 10:

فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ – 15:30

So, the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together.

  • فَسجَدَسَجَدَ : he prostrated

Verse 11:

قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلَّا تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ – 7:12

(Allah) said: “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?” Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”

  • تَسجُد: You prostrate

Verse 12:

أَفَمَن يَخْلُقُ كَمَن لَّا يَخْلُقُ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ – 16:17

And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you, and rivers and roads, that you may guide yourselves.

  • يخلُقُ : He creates

Verse 13:

وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَرَفَعْنَاهُ بِهَا وَلَـٰكِنَّهُ أَخْلَدَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ إِن تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْهِ يَلْهَثْ أَوْ تَتْرُكْهُ يَلْهَث ذَّٰلِكَ مَثَلُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا فَاقْصُصِ الْقَصَصَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ – 7:176

And recite (O Muhammad ) to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), but he threw them away, so Shaitan (Satan) followed him up, and he became of those who went astray.

  • تَترُكهُتَترُكُ : You leave

Verse 14:

لَا أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ – 109:2

“I worship not that which you worship,

  • أعبُدُ : I worship
  • تَعبُدُونَتَعبُدُ : You worship

Verse 15:

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَىٰ لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ قَالَ لَن تَرَانِي وَلَـٰكِنِ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنِ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّىٰ رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَىٰ صَعِقًا فَلَمَّا أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ – 7:143

And when Musa (Moses) came at the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord spoke to him, he said: “O my Lord! Show me (Yourself), that I may look upon You.” Allah said: “You cannot see Me, but look upon the mountain if it stands still in its place then you shall see Me.” So when his Lord appeared to the mountain , He made it collapse to dust, and Musa (Moses) fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.”

  • قَال: He said
  • أنظُر : I look

Verse 16:

وَخَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا – 78:8

And We have created you in pairs (male and female, tall and short, good and bad, etc.).

  • خَلَقنَاكُم  – خَلَقنَا : We created

Verse 17:

قَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ إِنَّهُمْ عَصَوْنِي وَاتَّبَعُوا مَن لَّمْ يَزِدْهُ مَالُهُ وَوَلَدُهُ إِلَّا خَسَارًا – 71:21

Nuh (Noah) said: “My Lord! They have disobeyed me, and followed one whose wealth and children give him no increase but only loss.

  • قَالَ : He said

Verse 18:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْجُدُوا لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ قَالُوا وَمَا الرَّحْمَـٰنُ أَنَسْجُدُ لِمَا تَأْمُرُنَا وَزَادَهُمْ نُفُورًا – 25:60

And when it is said to them: “Prostrate to the Most Beneficent (Allah)! They say: “And what is the Most Beneficent? Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you (O Muhammad ) command us?” And it increases in them only aversion.

  • نَسجُدُ: We prostrate

Hadeeth 1:

عن حصين بن عبدالرحمن قال: كنتُ عند سعيدِ بنِ جبيرٍ فقال : أيُّكمْ رأى الكوكبَ الذي انقضَّ البارحة ؟ قلتُ : أنا . ثمَّ قلت : أما إني لم أكن في صلاةٍ . ولكني لُدغتُ . قال : فماذا صنعتَ ؟ قلتُ : استرقيتُ . قال : فما حملك على ذلكَ ؟ قلتُ : حديثٌ حدثناه الشعبيُّ . فقال : وما حدثكمُ الشَّعبيُّ ؟ قلت : حدثنا عن بُريدةَ بنِ حصيبٍ الأسلميٍّ ؛ أنهُ قال : لا رقيةَ إلا منْ عينٍ أو حُمةٍ . فقال : قد أحسنَ منِ انتهى إلى ما سمعَ . ولكنْ حدثَنا ابنُ عباسٍ عن النبيِّ صلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ قال : عُرضتْ عليَّ الأممُ . فرأيتُ النبيَّ ومعهُ الرُّهيطُ . والنبيَّ ومعهُ الرجلُ والرجلانِ .والنبيَّ ليس معهُ أحدٌ . إذْ رُفعَ لي سوادٌ عظيمٌ . فظننتُ أنَّهُم أمَّتي . فقيلَ لي : هذا موسى صلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ وقومُهُ . ولكنِ انظُر إلى الأفقِ . فنظرتُ . فإذا سوادٌ عظيمٌ

  • قَالَ : He said
  • نَظَرتُ : I looked

Hadeeth 2:

As mentioned in a hadeeth that the wife of Ibraaheem Haajar said to him -when he was walking away from her in Mekkah:

لِمَن تَترُكُنَا بِهَذَا الوَادِي القفر الموحش ؟ ولكن إبراهيم مَضَى وَتَرَكَهَا فَقَالَت حِينَئِذ آللهُ أَمَرَكَ بِهَذَا ؟ قَالَ : نَعَم ، فَقَالَت : إِذَن لاَ يُضَيِّعُنَا اللّه

  • تَترُكُنَا  – تَترُكُ : You leave
  • لِمَن تَترُكُنَا بهذا الوادي (Liman tatrukunaa bihaathal waadeey): To whom do you leave us in this canyon
  • آلله أمرك بهذا؟ (Aallaahu amaraka bihaatha?): Is it Allaah who ordered you to do this?
  • قَالَ : نَعَم : He said: Yes
  • إِذَن لاَ يُضَيِّعُنَا اللّه (Ithan laa yudayyi’unal Laah): Then Allaah will not put us at loss 

Hadeeth 3:

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ : ” لَوْ أَمَرْتُ أَحَدًا أَنْ يَسْجُدَ لأَحَدٍ ، لأَمَرْتُ الْمَرْأَةَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِزَوْجِهَا ، مِنْ عِظَمِ حَقِّهِ عَلَيْهَا

 

The prophet  says: If I was going to order someone to prostrate to someone else, I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband, because of the great right upon her to him.

 

  • يَسجُد : he prostrates
  • تَسجُد : she prostrates

Hadeeth 4:

جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، فَقَالَ : إِنِّي تَزَوَّجْتُ امْرَأَةً مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ ، قَالَ : ” هَلْ نَظَرْتَ إِلَيْهَا ؟

One of the companions married someone of the Ansaar and he told the prophet  صلى الله عليه وسلم and the prophet  said to him: ‘ هَل نَظَرتَ إلَيهَا ‘

  • نَظَرتَ: you looked

 

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

2 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 24

  1. Umm Saleem December 20, 2012 at 4:28 pm Reply

    As-salaamu ‘alaykunna wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuhu,

    May Allaah reward you sisters immensely for the khayr you have been providing, ameen.
    I have noticed that in Verse 2, Verse 4, Verse 12, and Verse 13, although the references you have posted correspond with the translations, the ayaat you have posted do not. Please try to correct these mistakes as soon as possible as it may confuse many other sister. Barak Allaahu feekunna wa ahsan Allaahu ilaykunna.

  2. sarf4sisters December 20, 2012 at 6:06 pm Reply

    بسم الله

    وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

    Aameen, Baaraka Allaahu feeki wa Jazaaki Allaahu khayran ukhtee for pointing this out.

    Alhamdullilaah, it has been corrected and forgive me students for any confusion it might have caused you.

    Baaraka Allaahu feekum,

    Umm Sufyaan

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