Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 26

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Review >>>

  • The ‘taa’ in فَعَلَتْ is a sign that the doer is feminine, and it is called: تَاءُ التَّأنِيثِ السَّاكِنَة ( Taa-ut Ta-neethis Saakinah/ The silent taa of femininity)- With silence we mean that it originaly has a sukoon and no harakah.
  • This ‘taa’ doesn’t affect the end of the verb, because it doesn’t express the doer neither does it have a harakah – It is not like the ‘taa’ of فَعَلتُ or  فَعلتَ  or فَعَلتِ

Notes >>>

الغَائِب  ‘The Spoken about’

افَعَلاَ : Referring to ‘A dual Males or Mixture Spoken about’

ت + ا فَعَلَتَا: Referring to ‘A dual Females Spoken about’

و + ا فَعَلُوا: Referring to ‘A group of Males or Mixture spoken about’

  • ا فَعَلاَ Fa’alaa/They both did – This Alif represents the ‘two’ , it is called  أَلِفُ الاثنَين (Aliful Ithnayn/ The Alif of the two) it is the doer- Here there is no sign of feminity, because there are males involved
  • ت + ا – فَعَلَتَا (Aliful ithnayn ألِف الاثنين + Taa-u Ta-neethis Saakinah تَاءُ التأنِيتِ السَّاكِنَة) Fa’alataa/ They both females did- The ‘taa’ is the sign of femininity and it is not a dhameer (dhameeru Raf’)- the Alif represents the ‘two’  it is a dhameeru Raf’ (represents the doer)- Here there is no male involved, so we have to put a sign of femininity to indicate that we are only talking about females.
  • In فَعَلَتَا   you see four harakaat in a row but it actually is not, because here the ‘taa’ is given a harakah (fathah) to get rid of cutting of the word so this is an exception/emergency
  • فَعَلَتَا  is  فَعَلاَ  only with a sign of femininity , this because you use  هُمَا for both of them

Steps on how to form ‘Dual Females spoken about’:

First step: We add the ‘taa’ of femininity  تَاء التأنيث الساكنة , to indicate femininity  فَعَلَتْ  (Fa’alat)

Second step: Add the ‘Alif’ of the two  ألف الاثنين  , to indicate duality  فَعَلَتْا  (Fa’alt.. (not able to pronounce it as one word))

Third step:  Give the ‘taa’ a fathah as an emergency (exception) to suit the Alif that comes after it, because it is a prolonging of a fathah  فَعَلَتَا  (Fa’alataa)

  • To point out femininity we put a ‘taa’ of femininity  تاء التأنيث الساكنة – This ‘taa’ doesn’t express ‘she’ neither is it an alternative for ‘she’, but it is a sign that the type of doer is feminine not masculine. When we want to indicate that the doer is feminine we add the ‘taa’ of femininity.
  • The proof that the harakah on the ‘taa’ in فَعَلَتَا  is an exception is, because when removing the ‘alif’, it will get back to its original state, which is saakin  فَعَلَتْ

*Principle: When there are males involved they are superior to the females,  so in speech the sign of the male is used and when it is strictly females they are given a specific sign. *

  • و + ا – فَعَلُوا (Waawul Jamaa’ah واوُ الجَمَاعَة (The waaw of the Group) + Alif) Fa’aloo/ They all did. Here we follow the principle we have been given, that when a word expressing the doer is one of three letters ا, و, ي   we give the end of the verb a harakah suitable to the letter after it. The harakah that suits the waaw is a dhammah, that is why we give laamul kalimah a dhammah فَعَلُوا – There is a reason for this Alif to be there, but you don’t read it at all, the presents of the Alif is just like it is absent (tread it as if it is not there)

 

When we speak about two males it is clear and no need for us to explain that we are going to use a sign of a males- As for example:

  • المسلمون (Al-Muslimoon/The Muslims)-  Here we are talking about both (males and females), but when the male was superior we used the speech expressing the male, and when the case is speaking just about females with no males involved they have their own style of speech.
  • In the Quraan Allaah سبحانه وتعالى  says:

 وَعَلَى اللَّـهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ – 5:23

And put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed.

In the word مؤمنين  (Mu-mineen/Believers) He سبحانه وتعالى  is talking about the men and the women, but the speech used expresses the male

  • When there are males involved don’t use a sign of a femininity
  • الأَصلُ التَّذكِيرُ وَلَيسَ التَّأنِيثُ  (Al-Aslut Ta-thkeeru walaysat Ta-neeth/ By default the style you use is masculine not feminine) – This we will learn in Grammar in shaa Allaah

(even in the Arabic language the woman  has her own personality (own style of speech) not as other languages)

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shot:

Tasreeful 'izziyy 26-1

Ask a question or leave a comment

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: