بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد
The first meaning for this chapter that we learned is التعدية which means, making… it is turning the doer into a receiever.
The second meaning we took is الدخول في الشيء زمانا أو مكانا “entering something time-wise or place-wise.” That also takes the form of أَفْعَلَ. The way to do that is to take a certain name of a time or a place then take away all the extra letters and bring them on this form. There is a difference between the scholars of Arabic about this operation being سماعي or قياسي and what they mean is: Do you have to hear the Arabs using this word on this form or can you do it with any word you wish? For example – can we bring any word from the three letter verbs and use it for the meaning of التعدية or do we have to depend on what we hear from the Arabs? There is a difference in this.
سيبويه (Seebawayh) who is the imaam of Arabic, he said you could do that with any verb for the meaning of at-ta`diyyah. But as for the rest of meanings we follow the samaa`. So whatever we hear the Arabs say wesay it and whatever we don’t hear them say then we don’t say it.
So again, the second meaning we took is الدخول في الشيء زمانا أو مكانا like أعرَقَ, أمصَرَ, أشأَمَ , أنجَدَ, أصحَرَ , أصبَحَ, أمسَى , etc…
And some scholars said that the qiyaas is only with the laazim – any laazim you could bring it on this form. Some scholars said that the qiyaas is with the laazim and the muta`addee which has one receiver. But to stay out of ikhtilaaf – be on the safe side – if you are going to turn any three letter verb to this form, then do that only with the laazim. Otherwise the muta`addee of this verb – do it according to what you have heard – you go according to samaa`.
So Muta`addee do it according to samaa` and the laazim go according to qiyaas – without knowing have the Arabs spoke of it or not.
New Material >>>
the third meaning of this chapter is المصادفة Al-musaadafah (Literally means: coincidence) Here it means that the doer find the receiver upon a certain attribute.
- كبر kabura – he became big/old/great. from chapter 6 – baabu saadis – its common example is hasana – baabu hasana. it is laazim as chapter six verbs are always laazim.
- عظم `athuma – he was great (can be used for size as well – can be used for the same meaning as kabura and vice versa).
- بخل bakhila – he became stingy from chapter 4 (we say this is chapter 4 because we keep them in order with the asl first [fa`ila/yaf`alu] then the shaadh – [fa`ila/yaf`ilu]). Bakhila/yabkhalu – common example for the laazim of the 4th chapter is wajila so we say: bakhila min baabi wajila –
- حمد hamida – he praised – chapter 4 min baabi `alima –
- غفل ghafala – he became heedless – ghafala/yaghfulu chapter 1
- كرم karuma – he was generous – chapter 6 – karuma min baabi hasuna
- جبن jabuna – he became cowardly (from al-jubn and al-jubn is becoming a coward) chapter 6 jabuna/yajbunu
Bringing it on this third meaning >>>
Now if the doer wants to express that he has found the someone – the receiver – on one of those particular attributes he brings it on this scale. so af`ala for this meaning is going to be used for a muta`adee – since we involved the reciever.
- كبر means to become great and when we bring it on this scale (adding the dhameer to represent the receiver) we get: أكبرتُهُ – Akbartuhu is muta`adee – means; I found him great.
Whenever we are going to take a new meaning we will do the conjugations so we are always in touch with the two tables – they are very very important and we should memorize them just as we memorize our name.
- أكبرنَاهُ – Akbarnaahu – We found him great.
أكبرتَهُ – Akbartahu – you (m) found him great. – “ta” is talking to the single mukhaatab
- أكبرتِهِ – Akbartihi – you (f) found him great. – Here the haa’ is given a kasrah because moving from a dhammah to a kasrah and vice verse is avoided in the Arabic language.
Ustaadh mentioned we could work on the rest …
أكبرتُمَاهُ – Akbartumaahu – you both found him great.
أكبرتُمْهُ – Akbartumhu – you all found him great.
أكبرتُنَّهُ – Akbartunnahu – you all (f) found him great.
أكبرهُ – Akbarahu – he found him great.
أكبرتْهُ – Akbarathu – she found him great.
أكبراهُ – Akbaraahu – they both (m) found him great.
أكبرتَاهُ – Akbarataahu – they both (f) found him great.
أكبروهُ – Akbaruuhu – they all found him great. (not sure about this will ask in next class Inshaa’Allaah)
أكبرنَهُ – Akbarnahu – they all (f) found him great.
فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلَّـهِ مَا هَـٰذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ – 12:31 This is the meaning used in this verse – they found him – Yusuf `alayhis-salaam to be great in beauty – handsome, most beautiful.
- عظم becomes – أعظمته a`thamtuhu – I found him to be great – you can say it about anyone – I found him a great person. and we can say: A`thumnal-Albani (We found Shaykh Al-Albaani a great scholar) A`thumnaa ibn Baaz (we found Shaykh Bin Baaz a great scholar) A`thumtu Al-Ghudyaan – ( I found Shaykh al-Ghudyaan a great scholar). May Allaah have mercy on them all!
- بخل becomes – أبخلته Abkhaltuhu -I found him to be a stingy person – Abkhalnaahu – we found him to be a stingy person.
حمد becomes – أحْمَدْته Ahmadtuhu -I found him praisworthy.
- غفل becomes – أغفلته Aghfaltuhu -I found him heedless.
وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَنْ ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ – 18:28 “We have found his heart heedless.”
- كرم becomes – أكرمته Akramtuhu – I found him to be generous/ a generous person – Here we can understand that akrama could give one of two meanings – either finding someone generous (al-musaadafah) or being generous to someone (at-taadiyyah).
- جبن becomes –أجبنتهAjbantuhu – I found him to be cowardly.
Ustaadh said that we will bring a book of Aahaadeeth to practice on – probably forty hadeeth An-Nawaawi – we may do it after Level 2 or during it Inshaa’ Allaah…
والله تعالى أعلم … الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes transcribed by Umm Omar Al Amreekiyyah