Sarf – Level 2 – Class 10

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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TOPIC of the LESSON: The 5th meaning of  أَفْعَلَ  which is التَّوكِيدُ و المُبَالَغَة

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So far we have taken four meanings of the scale أَفعَلَ which are:

1-      التَّعدِيَة

2-      الدُّخُولُ في الشَّيءِ زَمَانا أو مَكَانا

3-      المُصَادَفة

4-      الصَّيرُورَة

(We will take two more meanings in shaa Allaah)

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The 5th meaning of  is أفعَلَ  is التَّوكِيدُ و المُبَالَغَة – which linguistically means: ‘The Confirmation and The Emphasizing ’

In this case the verb on this scale, would have the same meaning without the extra letter.

  • التَّوكِيد : The Confirmation
  • المُبَالَغَة : The Emphasizing

Examples:

حَبَّ : He loved

سَقَى : He fed (for a drink not food)

سَمَحَ : He allowed

شَكَلَ : He became doubtful

وَحَى :He informed secretly

وَعَى : He gathered

غَمَضَ : He blinked/closed his eyes

The verbs being brought on to the scale of أَفَعَلَ :

أَحَبَّ *: He loved

أَسقَى : He fed (for a drink not food)

أَسمَحَ : He allowed

أشكَلَ : He became doubtful

أَوحَى :He informed secretly

أَوعَى : He gathered

أَغمَضَ : He blinked/closed his eyes

  • أَحَبَّ *is on the scale of أفعَلَ, because it originally is أحبَبَ

These verbs still have the same meaning as before they got turned on the scale of أَفَعَلَ – But the point of bringing it on this scale is for Emphasizing and Confirming. Here you don’t just want to refer the verb to the doer, but you want to confirm it or you want to say that the doer exaggerated in doing the action. – And this is in the case where the رُبَاعِي (which is أَفعَلَ) has a ثُلاَثِي having the same meaning.

To know if the  رُبَاعِي (which is أَفعَلَ)  belongs to this meaning ‘التَّوكِيدُ و المُبَالَغَة’, you take away the hamzah and if it remains having the same meaning, then it belongs to the meaning of emphasizing and confirming. As for example:

  • أَقسَمَ means: he swore/promised– and when taking away the Hamzah it would be قَسَمَ  and this meaning is not the same, it means: he divided/sectioned – so it doesn’t belong to the meaning of التَّوكِيدُ و المُبَالَغَة.

Examples of when it does belong to the meaning of التَّوكِيدُ و المُبَالَغَة :

الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

وَجَمَعَ فَأَوْعَىٰ

And collect (wealth) and hide it (from spending it in the Cause of Allah). [70:18]

  • جَمَعَ : He gathered/collected – جَمَعَ, يَجمَعُ
  • أوعَى : He gathered (but in this sequence it means: gathered inside (as in hiding it))- Because وَعَى   means, gathered something inside somewhere- That is why they use وَعَى for memorizing or understanding something- وَعَاهُ (He understood it/ He memorized it) in either way, it means that he in took it (gathered it inside, whether in understanding or memorizing).

This means that أوعَى is not different from وَعَى (the original meaning remains the same) – The benefit of this extra letter (the hamzah) is to proof emphasis.

Here وَعَى  and أوعَى  have the same meaning, but they don’t give the same benefit.

Another Example:

 وَعَى مُحَمَّدٌ الدَّرسَ (Wa’aa Muhammedunid Darsa/ Muhammed memorized/understood the lesson)- But when saying: مُحَمَّدٌ أَوعَى الدَّرسَ (Muhammedun aw’ad Darsa/ Muhammed memorized/understood the lesson well) – here in the second sentence you want to proof/convey emphasis.

حَبَّ زَيدٌ عَمرًا (Habba Zaydun ‘Amraa/ Zayd loved ‘Amr) – But when saying أَحَبَّهُ (Ahabbahu/ He really loved him)- in the second sentence you want to proof/convey emphasis

In the Quraan, الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

عَالِيَهُمْ ثِيَابُ سُندُسٍ خُضْرٌ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٌ وَحُلُّوا أَسَاوِرَ مِن فِضَّةٍ وَسَقَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ شَرَابًا طَهُورًا

Their garments will be of fine green silk, and gold embroidery. They will be adorned with bracelets of silver, and their Lord will give them a pure drink. [72:21]

  • سَقَاهُم – سَقَى (the verb without any additions)

وَأَن لَّوِ اسْتَقَامُوا عَلَى الطَّرِيقَةِ لَأَسْقَيْنَاهُم مَّاءً غَدَقًا

If they (non-Muslims) had believed in Allah, and went on the Right Way (i.e. Islam) We should surely have bestowed on them water (rain) in abundance. [72:16]

  • لَأَسْقَيْنَاهُم – أَسقَى (with the hamzah in the beginning)
  • In the interpretation here they said: ‘bestowed’ and in the one mentioned before they said: ‘gave’ – And this to emphasis on the meaning
  • أسقى gives more than what سَقَى gives

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*Extra benefit: If you don’t know Arabic as you should, you are in danger if you speak about Islaam from your own understanding. The one who does not have it (the deep understanding of simple foundations), does not realize the danger of it.

Like for example: يَاءُ النِّسبَة (Yaa-un Nisbah/ The yaa of reference) – The ‘yaa’ you add to a noun for the sake of reference (It is an issue concerning Morphology). Like: الشَّافِعِي , he is the third forefather (great great grandfather) of As-shaafi’ ‘الشَّافِع’ and that is why he is called like that, in reference to his third forefather (which is شَافِع) – The name of  الشَّافِعِي is محمد بن إدريس بن عباس بن عثمان بن شافع

This reference could be to anything –

Like with countries: he who comes from America is called Amreekiyy, and he who comes from Jordan is called Ordoniyy, and he who comes from India is called Hindiyy, and he who comes from Pakistan is called Pakistaaniyy, and he who comes from Philippine is called Philippiniyy etc.

Or a profession: He who is referred to Mechanics is called Mikanikiyy, and he who is referred to Biology is called Biologiyy etc.

And this is even with what we are studying now ثلاثي referring to a three lettered verb and رُبَاعِي referring to a four lettered verb.

This reference could also be a certain way you are following, like those who follow the Shaafi’iyy madhhab can call themselves Shaafi’iyy and those who follow the Hanbaliyy madhhab can call themselves Hanbaliyy and those who follow the Haanifiyy madhhab can call themselves Haanifiyy etc.

Is there anyone out there even the Non-Arabs who argue the point that whoever follows the Hanbaliyy madhhab is called a Hanbaliyy or whoever follows the Haanifiyy madhhab is called a Haanifiyy? No, they even say it in English. They even take the names of ‘slander’ like saying Wahhaabiyy, but when they came to the word Salafiyy, they didn’t agree at all- to the point that someone said that when you say Salafiyy, you are saying that you are a dead person. If only this person would realize the reality of what he is saying, I am sure he would have left it right away- Because this includes passing the judgment on all the Scholars who used the reference, that they are dom and they call themselves pieces of land or dead people (like when they said Shaafi’iyy,and Hanbaliyy, and Haanifiyy, and Maalikiyy). If so, why is the yaa of reference agreed on when it is like that, and it is not excepted at all when it is Salafiyy, isn’t this being selective, coming out of a bit of desire?   

When we say Ash-Shaafi’iyy, do we mean that he is a walking dead person? No, he was only called Ash-Shaafi’iyy because his third forefather is called Shaafi’ – And when we say Amreekiyy or Hindiyy do we mean that you are a walking piece of Land? No

The point is that this issue is so basic that no Arabic speaker does not know.

And this because of the ignorance of the basic rulings of Arabic and probably a mixture of some sort of desire (because sometimes what drives a person to speak with no knowledge is ignorance with a bit of desire.)

And may Allaah guide us All.. Aameen*

 

 

~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shot:

Sarf level 2- Class 10

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