Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 29

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

الغَائِب ‘The Spoken about’

ي – يَفعَلُ: Referring to ‘A Single Male Spoken about ’

  • يَفعَلُ  is the common used example for the Mudaari’
  • يَفعَلُ : He does (He is doing)
  • The mostly used in ‘the spoken about  الغَائِب’  is the ‘yaa’ and in ‘the spoken to المُخَاطَب ’ only the ‘taa’ is used
  • Reminder: When we say الغَائِب  we don’t mean that the spoken about is absent, we only mean that the speech is not directed to him (he might be present, but you are speaking about him to someone else)

ت – تَفعَلُ : Referring to ‘A Single Female Spoken about’

*Note:  تَفعَلُ  is used for two causes : When Speaking to a Single Male المُخاطَب –  أنتَ تَفعَلُ  -or When Speaking about a Single Female هِيَ تَفعَلُ – الغَائبَة  – *

  • For the Female spoken about we use the ‘taa’ – instead of saying ‘yaf’alu’ we say ‘taf’alu’
  • تَفعَلُ  : She does
  • الغَائِبة adding the ‘ــة
  • In the context of the sentence it becomes clear which one it is referring to and this will be learned in the higher levels.

ي – يَفعَلاَنِ  and  ا + نِ at the end : Referring to ‘A dual Male or Mixture Spoken about’

ت – تَفعَلاَنِ  and  ا + نِ at the end : Referring to ‘A dual Female Spoken about’

* Note: تَفعَلاَنِ  is also used for two causes: When Speaking to a dual Male or Mixture  أنتُمَا تَفعَلاَنِ – or When Speaking About a dual Female هُمَا تَفعَلاَنِ *

  • When it is referring to strictly females you add a ‘yaa’ at the beginning and when it is for Males or Mixture you add a ‘taa’.
  • We add the ‘Alif’ which expresses duality ألفُ الاثنَينِ  and the ‘Noon’ which expresses the grammatical state. The ‘Noon’ gets a kasrah, because it follows ألفُ الاثنَينِ  -Yaf’alaaNI, Taf’alaaNI
  • If you were asked in the exam: What do we use mostly for the Noon the fathah or the kasrah? The fathah, because the kasrah is only used for ألفُ الاثنَينِ and the fathah is usedfor يَاءُ المُؤَنَّثَةِ المُخَاطَبَة  and وَاوُ الجَمَاعَة
  • يَفعَلاَنِ : They (dual male/mixture) do
  • تَفعَلاَنِ  : They (dual females) do

ي – يَفعَلُونَ and و + نَ  at the end: Referring to ‘A group Males or Mixture Spoken about’

  • We add the ‘Waaw’ which expresses a group وَاوُ الجَمَاعَة   and the ‘Noon’ which expresses the grammatical state. The ‘Noon’ gets a fathah, because it is not followed by ألفُ الاثنَينِ  -Yaf’alooNA
  • يَفعَلُونَ : They (males/mixture) do

ي – يَفعَلنَ  and نَ at the end: Referring to ‘A group of Females Spoken about’

  • When speaking about females, they get their own sign of femininity which is نُونُ الإنَاثَة   – This is the same  ‘Noon’ as we added in  المُخَاطَب , the only difference between the two verbs is the letter of the Mudaara’ah, in المُخَاطَب  it gets a ‘taa’ تَفعَلنَ  and inالغَائِب  it gets a ‘yaa’يَفعَلنَ -This means that if the group of females are Spoken to, you use the ‘taa’- And if the group of females are Spoken about you use the ‘yaa’
  • يَفعَلنَ : They (females) do
  • إنَاث: group of feminine

Whether it is Maadh or Mudaari’ the detached Dhameer is the same:

أنَا  (Anaa) : I

نَحنُ  (Nahnu): We

أنتَ  (Anta): You (m)

أنتِ  (Anti) : You (f)

أنتُمَا  (Antumaa): You both ( m/f/mix)

أنتُم  (Antum): You all (m/mix)

أنتُنَّ  (Antunna): You all (f)

هُو  (Huwa): He

هِيَ (Hiya): She

هُمَا (Humaa): They both (m/f/mix)

هُم (Hum): They (m/mix)

هُنَّ (Hunna): They (f)

 

  • If you notice you can see regarding the  مُخَاطَب that the end of the Maadh and the end of the detached dhameer are the same, like: anTA fa’alTA, anTI fa’alTI, anTUMAA fa’alTUMAA, anTUM fa’alTUM, anTUNNA fa’alTUNNA
  • In فَعَلتُنَّ   the ‘taa ’ expresses the doer (it represents it) and the ‘noon’ is the sign of the feminine group (it is not  نُونُ الإِنَاثَة)- As for the ‘noon’ in  فَعَلنَ  it expresses the doer (it represents it)

Exercise >>>

 Ustaadh read some from القَوَاعِدُ الأربَع  and whenever he came across a verb the students have learned he stopped and asked them to mention the detached dhameer and scale it belongs to.

(Click HERE to download the pdf-text of  القَوَاعِدُ الأربَع)

*Benefit: for now don’t worry about the harakah that is at the end and the harkah of the ‘ayn (as it changes according to the Chapter it belongs to), don’t let it trouble you *

 

1st Verb:

 أَسْأَلُ اللهَ الْكَرِيمَ رَبَّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ أَنْ يَتَوَلاكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَة

  • أسألُ – Its Detached Dhameer is  أَنَا
  • It is on the scale of  أَفعَلُ

2nd Verb:

 وَأَنْ يَجْعَلَكَ مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَمَا كُنْتَ

  • يَجعَلَكَ – يَجعَلَ –  Its Detached Dhameer is  هُوَ
  • It is on the scale of يَفعَل
  • Here the end of the verb is given a fathah and not a dhammah يَجَعَلَ , and this because it is in another grammatical state which necessitate that it gets a fathah instead of a dhammah  

3rd Verb:

 ، وَأَنْ يَجْعَلَكَ مِمَّنْ إِذَا أُعْطِيَ شَكَرَ

  • شَكَرَ –  Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلَ

4th Verb:

 وَإِذَا ابْتُلِيَ صَبَرَ

  • صَبَرَ –  Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • And it is on the scale of فَعَلَ

5th Verb:

 اعْلَمْ أَرْشَدَكَ اللهُ لِطَاعَتِهِ: أَنَّ الْحَنِيفِيَّةَ مِلَّةُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ: أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ، وَحْدَهُ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ

  • تَعبُد–  Its Detached Dhameer is أنتَ
  • It is on the scale of تَفعُل
  • تَعبُدُ : You worship – And if we would take it out of context it would also mean: She worships

6th Verb:

 كَمَا قَالَ تَعَالَى

  • قَالَ – Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the of فَعَلَ

7th and 8th Verb, where  الله سبحانه وتعالى said:

 وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

And I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone). [51:56]

  • خَلَقتُ  – Its Detached Dhameer is أنَا
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلتُ
  • لِيَعبُدُون –  يَعبُدُون – The Detached Dhameer is هُم
  • It is on the scale of يَفعَلُون

8th  and 9th Verb:

 فَإِذَا عَرَفْتَ أَنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَكَ لِعِبَادَتِهِ

  • عَرَفتَ – Its Detached Dhameer is أنتَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلتَ
  • خَلَقَكَ – خَلَقَ– Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلَ

10th and 11th Verb:

 فَإِذَا دَخَلَ الشِّرْكُ فِي الْعِبَادَةِ فَسَدَتْ

  • دَخَلَ– Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلَ
  • فَسَدَتْ –  Its Detached Dhameer is هِيَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلَتْ

12th Verb:

 ، فَإِذَا عَرَفْتَ أَنَّ الشِّرْكَ إِذَا خَالَطَ الْعِبَادَةِ أَفْسَدَهَا

  • عَرَفتَ – Its Detached Dhameer is أنتَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلتَ

13th Verb:

 وَصَاَر صَاحِبُهُ، مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ فِي النَّارِ

  • صَارَ– Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلَ

14th Verb:

 . عَرَفْتَ أَنَّ أَهَمَّ مَا عَلَيْكَ مَعْرِفَةُ ذَلِكَ

  • عَرَفتَ – Its Detached Dhameer is أنتَ
  • It is on the scale of فَعَلتَ

15th Verb:

 وَهِيَ الشِّرْكُ بِاللهِ الَّذِي قَالَ الله تَعَالَى فِيهِ

  • قَالَ – Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the of فَعَلَ

16th and 17th Verb, where  الله سبحانه وتعالى said::

 إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ

Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases … [4:48]

 

  • يَغفِرُ– Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • It is on the scale of يَفعِلُ
  • يَشَاءُ– Its Detached Dhameer is هُوَ
  • يَشَاءُ is originally يَشيَأُ  and it is on the scale of يَفعَلُ

    ~~~ End of Dars ~~~

    الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

    Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah 

3 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 29

  1. umm Ibraheem February 6, 2013 at 3:38 pm Reply

    Assalaamu’alaykum,
    Jazaakhallahu khayr for writing this out; it has been very helpful Maasha’Allah.
    Could you please help me with something.
    If yajala is on the scale of yajalu. Then why is it anta and not huwa? i thought anta was tafalu. Forgive me if i have confused you I have confused myself.

    • sarf4sisters February 6, 2013 at 3:58 pm Reply

      بسم الله

      وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

      Wa iyyaaki ukhtee

      If you mean the verb in أن يجعَلَكَ – It is correct its detached dhameer is هُوَ and not أنتَ – You didn’t confuse me or yourself in shaa Allaah, but you corrected me, Jazaaki Allaahu khayraa! It has been adjust, walhamdullilaah

      وبالله التوفيق

      Umm Sufyaan

  2. umm Ibraheem February 6, 2013 at 3:42 pm Reply

    sorry…this is the second verb btw. Barakallahu feek

Ask a question or leave a comment

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: