Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 31

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Notes >>>

As we already know the First chapter is: فَعَلَ – يَفعُلُ

Harful ‘Illah sometimes comes as :

  • The Faa of the Verb, like:  وَعَدَ, يَنَعَ
  • The ‘Ayn of the Verb, like:قَالَ , بَاعَ
  • The Laam of the Verb, like: دَعَا, سَقَى

According to some Principles which we are going to learn – Allaah willing – those three letters tend to change.

Principle: Every Alif (not hamzah) in a three letter verb was originally a ي  or a  و

  • From this we understand that there isn’t such a thing as an Alif being originally in any three letter verb


قَوَلَ  < —-   قَالَ   – 

  • قَالَ was originally  قَوَلَ’

بَيَعَ  < —-   بَاعَ   

  • بَاعَ was originally بَيَعَ

دَعَوَ  < —-   دَعَا  

  • دَعَا was originally  دَعَوَ ’

سَقَيَ  < —-  سَقَى

  • سَقَى was originally سَقَيَ ’
  • The Alif’s in  قَال, بَاعَ, دَعا, سَقَى  are not originally an Alif but a و  or a ي
  • The Laam of the verb  سَقَى  is an alif which took a form of a ي –  In the old times they didn’t write the two dots for the ي , because it was known. This kind of form of an alif cannot be written in the middle only when it is at the end

The way to know if the Alif was originally a و  or a  ي  is by taking it back to its Masdar

  • The Masdar of  قَالَ  is  قَوْلٌ  (Qawl)- Here you see a و in the Masdar, this means that the original letter of the Alif is a Waaw
  • The Masdar of  بَاعَ  is  بَيعٌ  (Bay’) – And here you see a ي  in the Masdar, this means that the original letter of the Alif is a Yaa

(Because we don’t have knowledge about the masdar, we are going to leave it up to ustaadh- So no worry about it, because ustaadh will tell us.. especially in our first levels)

Principle: If a و  or a ي  has a harakah (i.e. fathah, kasrah, dhammah) and the letter before has a fathah then turn the  و  or  ي  into an Alif

  • Notice: ‘…and the letter before it has a FATHAH’ – so here the letter before is specified with a fathah and not just any harakah

Can we apply this principle to قَوَلَ, بَيَعَ, دَعَوَ, سَقَيَ ?

To know if we can apply this principle we check and ask the following questions:

1st: Is there a و or a ي?

  • قَوَلَ  – Yes, there is a و  (in ‘Aynul Kalimah )
  • بَيَعَ  – Yes, there is a ي (in ‘Aynul Kalimah)
  • دَعَوَ  – Yes, there is a و (in Laamul Kalimah)
  • سَقَيَ  – Yes, there is a  ي (in Laamul Kalimah)

2nd: Does this letter have a harakah?

  • قَوَلَ  – Yes, It does  وَ  (It has a fathah)
  • بَيَعَ  – Yes, it does يَ  (it has a fathah)
  • دَعَوَ  – Yes, it does وَ (it has a fathah)
  • سَقَيَ  – Yes , it does  يَ (it has a fathah)

3rd: Is there a letter before it?

  • قَوَلَ  – Yes, there is a  ق
  • بَيَعَ  –  Yes, there is a  ب
  • دَعَوَ  –  Yes, there is a  ع
  • سَقَيَ  – Yes there is a   ق

4th: Does this letter have a Fathah?

  • قَوَلَ  – Yes, it does  قَ
  • بَيَعَ  – Yes, it does بَ
  • دَعَوَ  – Yes, it does  عَ
  • سَقَيَ  – Yes, it does   قَ


Conclusion: Because they all are applicable to the principle we can turn the و  or the  ي  into an Alif – And this you can do to any three letter verb as long the principle meets it.

قَالَ  < —-   قَوَلَ   

بَاعَ  < —-   بَيَعَ   

دَعَا  < —-   دَعَوَ 

سَقَى  < —-  سَقَيَ  

*Notice: The Alif in  سَقَى took the form of a yaa, to indicate that this letter was originally a ي

  • If the Alif at the end took the form of a yaa ى (without any dots) this means that it originally is a ي  – And if it was a standing Alif  ا  – like in دَعَا– ,then it originally is a Waaw و

Important Notice: Although the ‘Ayn of the verb changed to an Alif, the Scale remains the same

Meaning that you are going to treat ‘Aynul Kalimah just as if it wasn’t every changed.

  • قَالَ  originally is قَوَلَ   – Here we are going to treat the ‘Ayn  as if it wasn’t changed so we will weigh the verb قَوَلَ  and say: قَالَ  is on the scale of فَعَلَ
  • Don’t  say :
    • قَال  is on the scale of  فَالَ  , rather say:قَالَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ
    • or  بَاعَ  is on the scale of فَالَ , rather say:   بَاعَ  is on the scale of فَعَلَ
    • or  دَعَا  is on the scale of فَعَا  , rather say: دَعَا  is on the scale of فَعَلَ  
    • orسَقَى  is on the scale of فَعَى,  rather say: سَقَى  is on the scale of فَعَلَ

This Chapter is a Qiyaas in three types of Verbs:

  1. When the ‘Ayn of the Verb is originally a و
  • Meaning: There are three ways to know (without asking) when a verb belongs to this Chapter (Chapter one)- One of those ways is when ‘Aynul Kalimah is originally a Waaw.

Vocabulary of Chapter one (Qiyaas)

When the ‘Ayn is a Waaw:


He said

  • قَالَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He sought refuge

  • عَاذَ  is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He was

  • كَانَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He stood

  • قَامَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He repented

  • تَابَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He fasted

  • صَامَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He died

  • مَاتَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He won

  • فَازَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He visited

  • زَارَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ


He tasted

  • ذَاقَ   is on the scale of  فَعَلَ

Do these kind of verbs when they are turned in the conjugations that we have taken remain the same or change? This is what we are going to find out in the next class, in shaa Allaah



~~~ End of Dars ~~~


الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziy 31-1Tasreeful izziyy 31-2Tasreeful 'izziy 31-3


2 thoughts on “Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 31

  1. Ummu Afra February 18, 2013 at 1:30 am Reply

    assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu ya akhawati
    can you please tell me the meaning of the word:


    it is at the beginning of the notes in this class (31).
    Jazakunnallahu khayran.

    • sarf4sisters February 18, 2013 at 7:56 am Reply

      walaykumus salaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatuh

      Inshaa’Allaah it means “it ripened” (as in fruit). It is from the tri literal root : yaa-noon-ayn.

      An example of this meaning is in surah Al An`aam 6:99 (انْظُرُوا إِلَىٰ ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ) where you see the three root letters in the word (it is the masdar here and not the verb) in bold – the interpetation of the meaning is:

      It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain. And out of the date¬palm and its spathe come forth clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates, each similar (in kind) yet different (in variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and the ripeness thereof. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe,

      Allaah knows best

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