بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد
البَابُ الثَّانِي: فَعَّلَ – يُفَعِّلُ – تَفعِيلا
This second Chapter is called: بَابُ التَّفعِيل
Here it is apparent that ‘Aynul Kalimah is doubled and whatever is doubled in the word weighed is to be doubled in the scale
- If we say رَكَّبَ then it is on the scale of فَعَّلَ and قَتَّلَ doubling the ت we would also double the ‘Ayn on the scale فَعَّلَ
This Chapter comes from many meanings:
Mostly used: التَّكثِير ‘To show increase’
– Whether in the Act
– The Doer
– The Receiver
- التَّكثِير : The increasing
In the Act: To do that act a lot of times.
In the Doer: To proof the many doers who have done this act.
In the Receiver: To proof that there are many who have received that act.
As for example:
In the Act:
طَوَّفَ خَالِدٌ – Khalid circulated around many times
Here it proofs the increase of the Act and not the Doer, because Khalid is singular and the act could be done more than once.
- In طَوَّفَ the middle letter is doubled and it has an original three lettered verb where it goes back to which is طَافَ– And طَافَ was originally طَوَفَ (The waaw here has a harakah and the preceding letter has a fathah, so the waaw was turned into an Alif) – But in طَوَّفَ the waaw wasn’t turn into an Alif, because when we double this letter the waaw which is after the ط is saakin طَوْوَفَ, so the principle here could not be applied so it stays as it is.
- طَوَّفَ is taken from طَافَ, يَطُوفُ, طَوَافا
- طَافَ : He circlulated around (went around) – طَافَ فعلٌ مَاضٍ وَهُوَ مُسنَدٌ إلَى وَاحِد (Taafa is a past verb and it refers to one )
- If you say طَافَ you mean that he circulated around atleast one time – But if you say طَوَّفَ here you are proving that this act was done many times, so طَافَ would be different then طَوَّفَ , because the increase is shown in طَوَّفَ and not in طَافَ
- طَوَّفَ is Laazim and the تَكثير is imagined in the فِعل
In the Doer:
مَوَّتَتِ الإِبِلُ – Many camels have died
Here it proofs the increase in the doer and not in the act, because the act of ‘dying’ can happen only once (so it cannot be increased)
- الإبل : The camel(s) – It is not جَمع but اسمُ جَمع – meaning: A name given to the plural, which does not have a singular to its kind. – Therefore plurality doesn’t have be what is described as a plural grammatically it is enough to be plural in meaning.
- مَوَّتَ : He died
- Sometimes you don’t see the act increasing in the doer or the receiver, because the word is singular for example like, خَالد
- If it is an act that could not happen more than once like ‘diying’
- example: مَوَّتَتِ النَّاقَةُ – This is a wrong sentence, because here we can’t proof increase in the act, because ‘dying’ happens once- Neither can we proof it in the doer whom this act happened to, because it is singular.
- مَوَّتَ is Laazim
قَطَّعتُ الثِّيَابَ – I have cut many clothes
Here it proofs the increase in the receiver and not in the act or the doer, because the doer ‘تُ’ represents a singular doer (just as long there is no addition to it, like تٌما, تُم, تُنَّ ), and the receiver ‘الثِّيَاب’ is plural
- In this sentence the verb is قَطَّع and the doer is تُ ‘ضَمِيرُ رَفع’ and the receiver ‘مَفعُول بِه’ is الثِّيَابَ
- The singular of الثِّياب is الثَّوب
- Can the act of ‘cutting’ be imagined to be done more than once? Yes, by increasing the amount of cutting in whatever you are cutting
- This goes back to what you have intended- You might mean that the increase here was in the action and the receiver or you might mean that the increase here is only in the receiver- And the second one is the most apparent, it is the one to be taken by default- Some scholars forbid the first and some say it can happen to both the doer and the receiver in such cases
From this we take, that whenever we want to show increase in the doer or receiver it has to be plural.
If plurality can’t be imagined in the doer or receiver, then the act has to be one which could be done several times.
Some scholars said:
In the case where the فِعل is لاَزِم
إذَا كَانَ الفِعلُ لاَزِمًا فَالتَّكثِيرُ فِيهِ مَا دَامَ الفَاعِلُ مُفرَدًا
‘ If the verb is Laazim then the increase (the meaning of increase) is in it, just as long the doer is singular.’
And in the case where the فِعل is مُتعَد
أَمَّا إِذَا كَان الفِعلُ مُتَعَدِّيا فالتَّكثِيرُ فِي المَفعُول
‘As for if the verb was Muta’add then the increase is in the Receiver.’
- Example: قَطَّع زَيدٌ الثَّوبَ (incorrect), Because the verb قَطَّعَ is مُتعدّ , which means that the increase has to be in the receiver, so we have to make الثَّوب (the receiver) plural for it to be a correct sentence قَطَّعَ زَيدٌ الثِّيَابَ
~~~ End of Dars ~~~
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes Transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah