بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين
TOPIC of the LESSON: More verbs on scale of Af’Ala and their meanings
In the previous class we were talking about أَنْعَمْتُ (an`amtu) and we said the hamzah here is to give the meaning of الصَيْرُورة (As-Sayruurah). And originally أَنْعَمْتُ is أَنْعَمْتُهُ (an`amtuhu) and you don’t have to say, أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ (an`amtu `alayhim.)
For example: Instead of أنعمت على زيدٍ (Anamtu `alaa Zaydin) you could say أنعمت زيداً (Anamtu Zaydan) without having to say على (`alaa) because أنعم (an`ama) is a verb that is used muta`addee. So from this you can understand that when a verb is muta`addee and it is crossed over with a preposition, then know that there is some other verb involved.
أنعم الله زيداً – this is how it should be originally because an`ama is muta`addee. When a verb which is muta`addee is used laazim then that is because it contains another verb within it.
An example was given with the verb شرب as in شَرِبَ زَيْدٌ مِنْ مَاءٍ or شَرِبَ زَيْد مَاءً (both sentences are correct) – So why was it crossed over by the aid of a harf (in tِhe first sentence) although it can cross over by itself? (Because the verb which is muta`addee crosses to the receiver without the need of a harf.)
Al-filu al muta`addee crosses to the receiver without the need of a harf, whereas Al-laazim needs a harf for it does not have the power to cross over alone. This is the default principle.
So when you see a f`il which is muta`addin crossing over by a harf then there is a reason and a benefit behind it.
Sometimes there is a f`il which is laazim and it was embedded in al-f`il al-muta`addee
*Our teacher is explaining this to us now because we will come across alot of these verbs which are used muta`addin but then again it was used laazim and so we would wonder – if it is a mutaaddee verb then why do we need a harf? So this is going to be the answer.
So originally we would say, أنعم الله زيداً -meaning, Ja`alahu dhaa ni`matin (He made him the posessor of a ni`mah) and we say, Shariba Zaydun maa’an. But when you say An`amallaahu alaa Zaydin – there is an extra benefit in here … Here, the verb تفضل (tafadhdhala) was embedded. Tafadhdhala is laazim and it means, “bestowing.”
Fataqul (so you say for example): Tafadhdhalallaahu `alaa Zaydin bini’mah. (Allaah has bestowed upon Zayd with a nimah.) So to show that tafadhdhala was embedded in the verb An`ama, it was crossed with what tafadhdhala crosses over with (`alaa).
So here in an`amta alayhim we have the meaning, “You have made them the posessors of a ni`mah bestowing it upon them.” That is why in the interpretation you read: “Those whom you have bestowed your grace upon…” it also proves in the meaning that Allaah is not obliged to give this ni`mah but He gave it from Himself without being obliged to.
An`ama only has the menaing of As-sayruurah: Made him the posessor of a ni`mah… but tafadhdhala is when you give somthing out of your generosity without you being obliged to do it, The English word, “bestowing” sort of indicates that meaning. This bestowing was out of the generous Grace and not by force – out of favour and not out of compulsion. Allaah says in Suurah Al-Ahzaab 33:37
إِذْ تَقُولُ لِلَّذِي أَنْعَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ زَوْجَكَ وَاتَّقِ اللَّـهَ
And (remember) when you said to him (Zaid bin Hârithah radhiallahu’anhu the freed¬slave of the Prophet ) on whom Allâh has bestowed Grace (by guiding him to Islâm) and you (O Muhammad too) have done favour (by manumitting him) “Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allâh.”
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There are two sayings here:
Some scholars said that the hamzah here (the addition) gives the meaning of As-sayruurah and others said al-ighnaa’.
Abu Hayyan Al Andalusi said it is the meaning of As-Sayruurah (He is one of the a’immah of lughah /also authored tafseer: Al-Bahrul-Muheet [the encompassing sea] ) – is not the one who is most able to speak about tafseer the one who is most powerful in lughah ? Balaa.
Ustaadh related an enlightening story about ibn hisham an imaam of lughah who was highly recommended by other scholars – he wrote a book in an-Nahwu called Al- mughnil-abeeb (it was said whoever read the books of nahw and didn’t read this book then he missed the half of nahwu!) They said to Ibn hisham , “how come you didnt write a tafseer?!” He said: “Aghnaanee al Mughnee” “The sufficing sufficed me!” What is special about ibn Hishaam is he uses the Qur’aan and hadeeth for examples to what he explains.
Aamana is on the scale of Af`ala and if it has the meaning of As-sayruurah then it is taken from Al-Amn… Amina /ya`manu (min baabi `alima) it circulates around two meanings: trusting and becoming secure. So Aamana means then he become secure of or he became of a trust in whatever he believes in … Aamana billaahi or aamana bir-rusulih – صار صاحب أمن بالرسل
He become secure with his belief in Allaah, or entrusted in belief that Allaah sent messengers … He became at peace with the fact that Allaah sent out Messangers.
If it was al-ighnaa’ then that means its meaning starts here – at aamana (to believe) and doesn’t have a three letter origin that it goes back to, or that it is based upon.
Reconciling between the two sayings:
Some of the interpreters said that first it was recognized as the meaning of trusting and becoming secure with something then it was made up to be given a word of its own meaning.
The origin or history of the word:
It was Sayruurah – becoming of a trust in something secure with something
- then it had its own meaning (believe) in the end. (amina means became secure and this is different then aamana which means believing)
But the most knowledgeable scholars have said the meaning is As-Sayruurah and we will stick with that.
here we have the meaning of At-Ta`diyyah – as in أقام الصلاة وآتى الزكاة Aqaamas-Salaah wa ataaz-Zakaah … two very common examples.
قام Qaama is laazim and so is أتى Ataa.
Qaama means: rose, stood up, straightened (in itself) etc… so if you said قامت الضلاةQaamatis-salaatu it would mean, “the salaah was established, done correctly.” (the salaah is feminine so the taa’ut-taneeth was added). But if we want to refer this verb to a third person who straightened out the salaah then we add the hamzah which means At-ta`diyyah and now the salaah becomes the receiver: أقام الضلاةَ Aqaamas-Salaata.
All the verbs which we have taken from this meaning basically follow these same steps when bringing them onto this form: Some examples for when we want to refer the verbs to the sigular first person – (I)
جلس خالد – أجلست خالداً Jalasa Khaalid – Khallid sat – Khaalid is the faa`il- the doer, but when I want to refer the verb to myself making khaalid the receiver then add the hamzah and also the taaul-faail to get the meaning of “I made Khaalid sit.”
قامت هند – أَقمتُ هندَ Qaamat hindun – Hind stood up, Hind is the doer. But to refer the verb to myself, I put on this form to get; Aqamtu-Hinda meaning, “I made Hind stand up”
*** here we dropped alif because meem took a sukoon.
*** you can use Hind with tanween and without
رجعت الهرة – أَرجع الهرةَ The cat came back. it is laazim -“coming back does not cross to a receiver) but if I want to refer the verb to myself, saying I am the one brought the cat back – then I put it on this form: arja`atul-hirata neaning, ” I brought back the cat.”
Same with aqaama and aataa …
قامتِ الصلاة – أقمت الصلاة
First it meant “the salaat was established” but to refer the verb to myself then
I add the hamzah, and drop the alif because the meem is silenced
add the taa of doer – give it a dhammah
turn the salah into the reciever by changing the last harakah to fathah so it means: I established the prayer (at ta`diyyah)
أتت الزكاة – آتَيْتُ الزكاةَ meaning the zakaat came – it was Originally Ataat but because there was alif and alif is saakin and the taaut taneeth is saakin also – we dropped the alif to get Atat … then because the letter after the taaut taneeth was also saakin then we gave the taautaneeth a kasrah to avoid the meeting of two sukoons …
Now to refer this verb to myself ,
- add the hamzah to the beginning… here we have two hamzahs in a row resulting in the second one turning into an alif and both the first hamzah and the alif merging together to form the madd آ.
- we bring back the yaa because
- there is no need to drop it anymore and
- there is no need to change it to an alif. – it is only turned to alif when the yaa has a harakah and the letter before it has a fathah but here the yaa does not have a harakah, It is silenced because we add the taa’ul-faa`il
- We get Ataytuz-zakaah meaning. “I made the zakah come” in the sense that “I gave out the zakah”…
– End of Dars –
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
Notes Transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah