Establishing the Principles: Arabic – Sarf – Book 1 – Class 32

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

Small Review >>>

  • There are three cases where the verb has to belong to chapter one, and the first case is: When ‘Aynul Kalimah is a waaw

Notes >>>

The Alif represents an original letter and whatever represents an original is treated as an original

  • قال  is on the scale of  فَعَلَ  , and this because the alif represents an original letter , so we treat it as an original letter

To turn verbs like قَال  into a Mudaari’, being on the scale of  يَفعُلُ  you do the following:

1st: Add the ‘yaa’  – ي

2nd: Give this ’yaa’ a fathah – يَ

3rd: Silence Faa-ul Kalimah – يَقْ 

Before going to step four, notice: There is a principle that says: If a و  or a  ي  has a harakah and the letter before it has a FATHA then turn the و or ي  into an Alif.

Here the letter before it is silenced (it is saakin and not mutaharrik), because there is no reason for the و  to be turned into an Alif it refers back to how it was (being a Waaw)  يَقْولَ – And for it to match with the scale ‘يَفعُلُ’ , we give the و (which is ‘Aynul kalimah) a dhammah يَقْوُلَ

4th: Give Laamul kalimah a dhammah (default state of the Mudaari’) يَقْوُلُ

Here يَقوُلُ (yaqwulu) matches يَفعُلُ , but there is a problem here. The Dhammah on the و is a heavy harakah and the letter و is a heavy letter, and this makes – A heavy letter + A heavy harakah = A heavy pronunciation.

This heaviness contradicts the general principle which says: ‘Seek lightness in Speech’

This Dhammah on top of the و has to be dealt with, because it causes problems.

If the letter before is vacant (free) of any harakah, then we give the harakah to it

5th: Because the letter before the waaw is vacant we can give the dhammah on the وُ  to the letter before it (Faa-ul Kalimah) يَقُولُ  (yaqoolu)

Since the dhammah comes before the و and you already know that a waaw is a prolonging of the dhammah, then it is gone run nice and smooth in pronunciation.

*This is what you do with every three letter verb which has ‘aynul kalimah as a waaw

The Maadhiy                                                  The Mudaari

يَقُولُ                                                                  قَالَ

يَعُوذُ                                                                  عَاذ

يَقُومُ                                                                   قَامَ

يَكُونُ                                                                  كَانَ

يَتُوبُ                                                                  تَابَ

يَصُومُ                                                                 صَامَ

يَمُوتُ                                                                 مَاتَ

يَزُورُ                                                                    زَارَ

  • Sukoon is not a harakah
  • We don’t say يَقُولُ  is on the scale of  يَفُعلُ , but we treat it as if it is on its original state  يَقْوُلُ  and say يَقُولُ  is on the scale of  يَفعُلُ

Principle: If the change was due to a morphological principle (a trend) we treat it as an original

Conjugation >>>

قَالَ – يَقُولُ 

The Maadhee

المُتَكَلِّم  ‘The Speaker’

تُ – قُلتُ : Referring to ‘A single Male, Female Speaker’

Steps on how to turn verbs like قَالَ into قُلتُ

1st Step: To refer the verb to the single speaker you add a ‘taa’ with a ‘dhammah’  تُ قَالَتُ (qaalatu)

2nd Step: Silence Laamul Kalimah  قَالْتُ (qaaltu)

  • Here we have two sukoons in a row (i.e. the one on the Alif, and the one on the laam) قَاْلْتُ
  • Having to Sukoons in a row is avoided

In this case if there are two sukoons in a row, there are two cases:

1.  Either the first one is one of Hurooful ‘illah ‘ و, ي, ا

If it is we drop it, with a condition: That there is proof of the dropped letter before it


–          If the dropped letter is an Alif, then to drop it the letter before has to have fathah

–          If the dropped letter is a Yaa, then to drop it the letter before has to be have kasrah

–          If the dropped letter is a Waaw, then to drop it the letter before has to have a dhammah

In قَالْتُ  two sukoons meet and this is avoided, what we do is:

1st:  We look to the first saakin letter and see if it is one of hurooful illah

  • قَالْتُ , Here the first saakin letter (‘aynul kalimah) is an ‘Alif’ and it belongs to one of hurooful ‘illah

2nd: We look if there is proof of the dropped letter before it, if there is we drop it.

  • Here the letter that we want to drop is an Alif and the letter before it has proof of the Alif (it has a fathah which is the harakah that suits it and it is the prolonging of a fathah) –  This means that we can drop the Alif قَلتُ

After this is done, there isn’t proof of what the Alif originally was. So to keep the identity of the Waaw after the Alif is no longer there, we give the letter a dhammah

3rd : We give the letter before the dropped letter the harakah that suits the original letter

  • Because the dropped letter ‘Alif’, is originally a ‘Waaw’ and to keep the identity of the Waaw we give the letter a Dhammah  قُلتُ

And this because otherwise it will not be recognized whether this Alif was originally a Waaw or a Yaa

Notice: The Waaw is original, but the Alif is also an original, because by the aspect that it represents an original (as if it is a substitute)

As for example:

When we changed the Waaw or the Yaa into an Alif going by the principle we didn’t give the letter before it a dhammah or a kasrah to identify it, because they don’t suit the Alif so it can’t be applied… قُالَ – قِالَ 

The verb قَالَ  comes in two ways :

  • The Alif here is originally a Waaw  قَوَلَ   – from قَالَ – يَقُولُ   (which we already know)
  • Or originally a Yaa قَيَلَ  – Because there is a word which is  قَالَ – يَقِيلُ

If we add the ‘تُ’  of the doer in both cases and drop the Alif without adding the proof of the original dropped letter and keeping the fathah considering that the dropped letter is an Alif, you will get:

 قَلْتُ –  قَلْتُ   And now we can’t recognize which one is originally a ‘waaw’ and which one is originally a  ‘yaa’  

To prevent this confusion from happening we gave a Dhammah to indicated that the dropped Alif is originally a waaw قُلتُ   And we gave a kasrah to indicate that the dropped Alif originally is a Yaa قِلتُ



~~~ End of Dars ~~~

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah


Screen Shots:

Tasreeful 'izziy 32-1Tasreeful 'izziyy 32-2

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