بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:
The Author clarifies the obligatory being of 2 types
The Author says: That which is obligatory which the legislator has commanded in an obliging manner is not always obligatory upon each and every individual rather it is of two types:
- Sometimes it is obligatory upon each and every individual. (fardhi a’yn)
- Sometimes it is obligatory upon a group of people meeting sufficiency. (Fardhi Kifaayah)
Fardhi A’yn ( فَرْضِ عَيْن)
What is Fard?
Fard is an identical name given to al-waajib.
What is the meaning of `ayn?
It is the thing itself, meaning that there are some obligatory acts which are self obligatory. This would mean it is obligatory upon each and every individual.
The Author says: It is commanded to be done from every (Mukallaf مكلف) sane adult and it is the majority of the prescribed legislative rulings. The Mukallaf is the one who is fit to be ordered.
- Baaligh (بالغ) is someone who has reached puberty.
- `Aaqill (عاقل) is sane
The description is based upon a hadeeth:
عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : ” رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ : النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ ، وَعَنِ الْمَجْنُونِ حَتَّى يُفِيقَ ، وَعَنِ الصَّبِيِّ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ ” .
The Messenger of Allah said: “The Pen is lifted from three (i.e., their deeds are not recorded): a child until he reaches puberty; an insane man until he comes to his senses; one who is asleep until he wakes up.” [Recorded in Abu Dawud #4403, and Ibn Majah #2041]
Al-Waajib is of types from many aspects meaning from certain aspects it’s two types from another aspect its two types, from a different aspect it’s two types. Here when the Author makes Waajib of two types it’s from the aspect of one commanded or the command itself (carried out by each and every individual or a group).
Most of the commandments are Fardhi A’yn
Fardhi Kifaayah (فَرْضِ كِفاَيَة)
What is Fard? Is obligatory.
What is Kifaayah? It means sufficiency. Fardhi A’yn is self obligatory and this is an obligation of sufficiency.
The Author says: It is whatever is requested to happen and to be carried out from the people in regards to the command. Not from everyone himself. Just like learning sciences and the beneficial professions and azan and enjoining good and forbidding all evil. And the likes of this.
Is it obligatory upon each and every individual to become a doctor? No
Is it obligatory upon each and every individual to become a Chemist? No
Is it obligatory upon each and every individual to become a Biologist? No
Is it obligatory upon each and every individual to become a Sailor? No
Is it obligatory upon each and every individual to become a Scientist? No
Is it obligatory upon each and every individual to become a Mua’zzin? No
What is meant from the Azan? It is to inform the people of the time of salah.
If the good is already done should everyone do it? No.
There is an evil and someone is forbidding it should everyone d it? No as long as the Evil stopped.
As for the issue of learning different sciences, we see, as for the religion it is obligatory upon each and every individual
As for seeking knowledge it is originally and generally obligatory upon each and every individual because of the saying of the prophet: “seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim” [(Ibn maajah: 224)(Tabaraani:9 (Al mu’jamul awsath)(Al Bayhaqi in his book parts of eeman:1665)]
If this seeking of knowledge corrects your Creed/belief, and worshiping of Allah, and every act of worship which you are commanded to do individually then it is Fardhi A’yn. otherwise it is Fardhi Kifaayah.
- Can anyone pray Salah meeting all conditions and obligations without learning how to pray? No. CONCLUSION – seeking knowledge of how to pray is obligatory upon you.
- Can anyone know Allah without learning about Him? No. It is in our Fitra. It being in our Fitra means that we are given the ability to intake it.
A Hadeeth (Bhukari: 469 Book of Tawheed):
Narrated Ibn Abbas: When the Prophet sent Muadh to Yemen, he said to him, “You are going to a nation from the people of the Scripture, so let the first thing to which you will invite them, be the Tauhid of Allah. If they learn that, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them, five prayers to be offered in one day and one night. And if they pray, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Zakat of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor. And if they agree to that, then take from them Zakat but avoid the best property of the people.”
Do they know Allah or don’t they? They know Allaah.
Have they fulfilled the ones of Allaah? No.
The thing commanded is either:
- in the advantage of each and every individual directly, or –
- in the advantage of the entire people and its advantage to the individual is only from the aspect f him being one of them.
The advantage of salah goes to each and every individual by himself but the advantage of the azan goes back to the Ummah (nation) even if all of them didn’t do it.
What is the purpose of Jihaad? Is the purpose directly a benefit for each and every individual by himself? No and the cause of Jihaad is to establish Islam.
If a group of people fight for the cause of Allaah and Islaam is established, what was meant to be done was it done? Yes. Do the rest have to do it? No
~End of class~
Alhamdulillaah wassalaatu wassalaamu ‘alaa Rasoolillah
Notes transcribed by: Zaiba binth Shuraiz Jawward Hashim