Sarf – Level 2 – Class 15

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين, أما بعد

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TOPIC of the LESSON: Second meaning of Al-Baabuth-Thaaniyy

الباب الثاني: فَعَّلَ – يُفَعِّلُ – تَفْعِيلاً

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The second meaning of this chapter is التعدية means, “it was pure” (At-ta`diyyah)- to make a muta`addee

Examples

    1. فَرِحَ    means, “he was happy”
    2. عَلِمَ    means, “he knew”
    3. نَزَلَ     means, “he came down”
    4. فَضُلَ    means, “he became preferred” – “he became better than another in any quality”
    5. نَجَا      means, “he was saved”
    6. خَفَّ    means, “it became lightened in itself”
    7. بَان     means, “it become manifested in itself”
    8. طَهُرَ    means, “it was pure”
    9. زَكَا    means, “it grew”

Doubling the `ayn of these verbs will simply apply the meaning of “making.”  Which makes the verb cross over to a receiver. When we change to this scale then remember that the `ayn is fixed on a fathah.

    • فَرِحَ  becomes: فَرَّحَ  (farraha) as in “Farraha Zaydun Khaalidaa.”  (Zayd made Khaalid happy.)

    • عَلِمَ becomes: عَلَّمَ (`allama)   First we use  عَلِمَ (`alima) in a benefcial sentence, (a student suggested): عَلِمَ الْوَلَدُ المَسْأَلَةَ  (`alima al-waladu al-mas’alah) meaning, “The child knew the subject/issue.”

* SIDE BENEFIT * Waladu does not mean “boy” as is commonly understood.  Walid is whatever is born –  it is either dhakarun (male) or unthaa (female).  Allaah Ta’Aalaa said:

يُوصِيكُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِىٓ أَوۡلَـٰدِڪُمۡ‌ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ‌ۚ

Allaah commands you as regards your children’s (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; … (4/11)

So al-walad is a born child, whether male or female –  then the son is called ibn and the daughter is called ibnah, and the baby boy is called sabiyyun and the baby girl is called sabiyyah.

So `alima al-waladu al-mas’alah means:The child knew the issue.”  Is `alima laazim or muta`adee?  It is muta`addee.  Now if we say  عَلَّمَ الولدُ المسألةَ   (`allama Al-waladu al-mas’alata)  it has a new meaning:  “The child taught the issue.” (literally “the child made someone know the issue” ).

And if we say عَلَّمْتُ الولدَ المسألةَ   (allamtu Al-walada Al mas’alata)  Now al-walad is the maf`ool –  and al-mas’alata  is also a maf`ool.  Sometimes , some verbs can cross over to TWO RECEIVERS. We already know that there is a verb which is mutaadee meaning it has a doer and someone affected by that act – some verbs cross over to affecting two things, not only one.   And that is what we have here.  “‘allama” crosses to “the child”  and “the issue.”     The point we need to know is:  If a verb which is already muta`adee has its `ayn doubled, it will cross over to a second receiver.  (Doubling the `ayn is doubling the receiver – Transcribers observation)   So here we see that the issue took the effect of the teaching too not just the boy.  If you removed “al-walad”  the first maf`uul would be intended and you not mentioning it might sometimes give the meaning of  العموم “generalizing.” –  I taught the issue to anyone.

We can apply the same  for attaddiyyah that we learned (af’ala –  baabul-If`aal): أعَلَّمْتُ الولدَ المسألةَ a`lamtu Al-walada Al mas’alata)   And the meaning is the same here if the meaning it is used for is the same.  If we used them both for attaaddiyah to cross to another maf`ool. –  it can be on baabul-if`aal or baabul-taf`eel.  An example:

Allaah said in Suurah Al Baqarah aayah 31:

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.”

Here- Allaah did the ta`leem and Adama is the maf`uul.   If we had a dhammah on Adam – if it was “adamu”- then that would make Adam the doer, but we read the sentence in sequence and we see that in everything before – Allaah is the doer, and then this verse begins with “wa” which connects it to the sentences before. The doer is “he” is already in there unless it is mentioned …if the doer is mentioned then the ‘he” is the doer. If you don’t mention the doer (saying Allama huwa) then the doer is hidden/embedded in the verb. If we consider the following sentences and that each one is laid out differently:

وعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَا   Here Adam is not a dhammeer and it is the first maf`ool

علم القرآن Where is the first maf`ool here? it is not mentioned … here not mentioning it is for the benefit of generalizing (al-`moom). we can say that the one taught was not mentioned to prove generality.

علمه البيام Here the first dhameer is a maf`ool and ‘Al-bayaan” is the second maf`ool.

Continuing with the Examples

  • نَزَلَ means, “he came down” (by himself) it becomes: نَزَّلَ (nazzala), “he made come down” Allaah said in Al-Baqarah Aayah 23:

إِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا …

And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down…

  • فَضُلَ becomes: فَضَّلَ (fadhdhala), “he made someone preferred over another”  Allaah said in Al-Baqarah aayah 47:

بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the ‘Alamîn [mankind and jinn (of your time period, in the past)].

IMPORTANT POINT of BENEFIT:  This preferring to them (Bani Israeel) over the aalameen, was in there time.  This benefit is to conciliate between this verse and the verse in Suurah Aali `Imraan  3/110:

نتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ ۗ وَلَوْ آمَنَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُم ۚ مِّنْهُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

You [true believers in Islâmic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma’rûf (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism and all that Islâm has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islâm has forbidden), and you believe in Allâh. And had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them; among them are some who have faith, but most of them are Al-Fâsiqûn (disobedient to Allâh – and rebellious against Allâh’s Command).

The best Ummah out of all –  preferred Ummah is the Ummah of Muhammad –  Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam.  The Bani Israeel were best in their time but then Muhammad came, and since Muhammad is the best of all the Messengers, and the Qur’aan is the best of all the Books, and since Islam is the best of all religions then this necissitates that this Ummah is the best of all nations!

  • نَجَا becomes: نَجَّا  (najjaa)  “he saved someone”  As Allaah said in Al Baqarah aayah 49:

وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءَكُمْ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُم بَلَاءٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ

And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir’aun’s (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord.

Also in this verse we have the verb: يُذَبِّحُونَ –  n this same scale but here it is for the meaning of At-taktheer –    the increase is in the maf`ool –  the sons that were killed.

USTAADH GAVE an assignment for the student to find the verbs on this form from the first Juz:

  • خَفَّ    means, “it became lightened in itself”
  • بَان     means, “it become manifested in itself”
  • طَهُرَ    means, “it was pure”
  • زَكَا   means, “it grew”

AND TEN MORE VERBS as WELL …

– End of Dars –

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله

Notes Transcribed by: Umm Omar Al-Amreekiyyah

Screen Shots >>>

S2 15.1S2 15.2

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